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Advanced Bulgarian Words: Speak Like a Native

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If you’ve gotten used to the intermediate-level Bulgarian vocabulary and feel like it’s time to move ahead, then you’re in the right place. This advanced Bulgarian wordlist from BulgarianPod101 will take you to the next level and help you use Bulgarian fluently in a wide range of contexts.

In this extensive overview, you will get acquainted with a variety of advanced Bulgarian words, their meaning in English, and how to use them in sentences via the examples we’ve provided. For your convenience, we have divided these words into categories.

Of course, it may take a while for you to get used to these advanced Bulgarian words, as they have the highest level of difficulty. However, you can take advantage of these top 15 tips to remember Bulgarian words. We’ve also included some practical exercises that will help you memorize this new set of vocabulary, so don’t give up even if it seems too hard.

Now is the right time to overcome the last big challenge and become a highly proficient Bulgarian speaker!

A Man in a Suit Jumping from One Ledge to Another

hypoglycemia

Overcome the last big challenge with this guide.

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Beginner Vocabulary in Bulgarian Table of Contents
  1. Advanced Academic Words
  2. Advanced Business Words
  3. Advanced Medical Words
  4. Advanced Legal Words
  5. Alternative Words for Acing Bulgarian Writing/Essays
  6. How can BulgarianPod101 help you learn Bulgarian?
  7. Answers to Practical Exercises

Advanced Academic Words

Let’s take a look at the following list of 27 advanced Bulgarian words related to academia, along with their pronunciation and their meaning in English. To help you understand how these words can be used in speech and writing, we have also included an example sentence for each word.

#1 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
оценкаotsenkaassessment
Example:Нека направим оценка на работата.Neka napravim otsenka na rabotata.
Meaning:Let’s make an assessment of the work. 

#2 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
противоречиеprotivorechiecontradiction 
Example:В това намирам пълно противоречие с истината.V tova namiram pаlno protivorechie s istinata.
Meaning:In this, I find a complete contradiction with the truth.

#3 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
съкращениеsakrashtenieabbreviation
Example:Какво означава това съкращение?Kakvo oznachava tova sakrashtenie?
Meaning:What does this abbreviation mean? 

#4 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
клишеklishecliché
Example:Този израз е клише, затова го замени с по-подходящ.Tozi izraz e klishe, zatova go zameni s po-podhodyasht.
Meaning:This expression is a cliché, so replace it with a more suitable one. 

#5 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
параграфparagrafparagraph
Example:Основанието за това е посочено в параграф 1.Osnovanieto za tova e posocheno v paragraf 1.
Meaning:The reason for this is set out in paragraph 1. 

#6 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
логикаlogikalogic
Example:Твоята логика основава ли се на факти?Tvoyata logika osnovava li se na fakti?
Meaning:Is your logic based on facts? 

#7 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
редакцияredaktsiyaedition / revision 
Example:След направената редакция статията изглежда по-добре.Sled napravenata redaktsiya statiyata izglezhda po-dobre.
Meaning:After the edition, the article looks better. 

#8 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
проучванеprouchvanestudy / research
Example:След детайлно проучване на проблема комисията реши да вземе окончателно решение.Sled detaylno prouchvane na problema komisiyata reshi da vzeme okonchatelno reshenie.
Meaning:After a detailed study of the problem, the commission decided to make a final decision. 

#9 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
общностobshtnostcommunity
Example:Общност е група от хора, които имат емоционална връзка помежду си.Obshtnost e grupa ot hora, koito imat emotsionalna vrazka pomezhdu si.
Meaning:A community is a group of people who have an emotional connection with one another. 

#10 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
хуманизъмhumanizamhumanism 
Example:Ренесансовият хуманизъм е насочен към образованието на младите.Renesansoviyat humanizam e nasochen kam obrazovanieto na mladite.
Meaning:Renaissance humanism focused on the education of the young. 

#11 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
критикаkritikacriticism 
Example:Младежът беше подложен на строга критика.Mladezhat beshe podlozhen na stroga kritika.
Meaning:The young man was subjected to severe criticism. 

#12 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
наукаnaukascience 
Example:Изучаването на различните видове науки разширяват кръгозора.Izuchavaneto na razlichnite vidove nauki razshiryavat kragozora.
Meaning:The study of different types of science broadens one’s horizons. 

#13 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
социализацияsotsializatsiyasocialization 
Example:Училищната среда съдейства за социализацията на децата.Uchilishtnata sreda sadeystva za sotsializatsiyata na detsata.
Meaning:The school environment promotes socialization of children. 

#14 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
ресурсresursresource 
Example:Компанията избира да инвестира в човешки ресурси.Kompaniyata izbira da investira v choveshki resursi.
Meaning:The company chooses to invest in human resources. 

#15 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
препраткаprepratkareference 
Example:Статията използва препратка към закона за образованието.Statiyata izpolzva prepratka kam zakona za obrazovanieto.
Meaning:The article contains a reference to the education law. 

#16 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
публикацияpublikatsiyapublication 
Example:В най-новата публикация във вестника пише по този въпрос.V nay-novata publikatsiya vav vestnika pishe po tozi vapros.
Meaning:The latest publication in the newspaper writes about this issue. 

#17 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
форумforumforum
Example:В земеделския форум се обсъжда темата за доставките на жито.V zemedelskiya forum se obsazhda temata za dostavkite na zhito.
Meaning:The topic of wheat delivery is being discussed in the agricultural forum. 

#18 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
проектproektproject
Example:От днес започвам да работя по нов проект.Ot dnes zapochvam da rabotya po nov proekt.
Meaning:As of today, I’m starting to work on a new project. 

#19 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
семинарseminarseminar 
Example:На семинара присъстваха много хора на науката.Na seminara prisastvaha mnogo hora na naukata.
Meaning:The seminar was attended by many people of science. 

#20 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
конференцияkonferentsiya conference 
Example:Тази година конференцията ще се проведе в София.Tazi godina konferentsiyata shte se provede v Sofiya.
Meaning:The conference will be held in Sofia this year. 

#21 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
докладdokladreport 
Example:В доклада бяха споменати и причините за възникналата ситуация.V doklada byaha spomenati i prichinite za vazniknalata situatsiya.
Meaning:The report also mentioned the reasons for the situation. 

#22 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
колекцияkolektsiya collection 
Example:Иван реши да си направи колекция от пощенски марки.Ivan reshi da si napravi kolektsiya ot poshtenski marki.
Meaning:Ivan decided to make a collection of postage stamps.

An Assortment of Postage Stamps

Ivan decided to make a collection of postage stamps.

#23 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
програмаprogramaprogram 
Example:В програмата тази година са заложени основните приоритети на компанията.V programata tazi godina sa zalozheni osnovnite prioriteti na kompaniyata.
Meaning:The main priorities of the company are included in the program this year.

#24 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
манифестmanifestmanifesto
Example:Властта се обърна към населението с манифест.Vlastta se obarna kam naselenieto s manifest.
Meaning:The government addressed the population with a manifesto. 

#25 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
архивarhivarchive 
Example:Ще проверя в архива дали в библиотеката е налична тази книга.Shte proverya v arhiva dali v bibliotekata e nalichna tazi kniga.
Meaning:I will check in the archive whether this book is available in the library. 

#26 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
специализантspetsializant postgraduate student
Example:Тази година той е специализант по медицина.Tazi godina toy e spetsializant po meditsina.
Meaning:This year, he is a postgraduate student in medicine. 

A Young Doctor and a Nurse Looking at a Clipboard Together

This year, he is a postgraduate student in medicine.

#27 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
докторантdoktorantdoctorate
Example:За да повиши квалификацията си, Елена започна да учи за докторант.Za da povishi kvalifikatsiyata si, Elena zapochna da uchi za doktorant.
Meaning:In order to improve her qualification, Elena started to study for a doctorate. 

Practical Exercise for Advanced Academic Words

BulgarianPod101 understands that these academic words can be quite challenging. This is why we’ve prepared some practical exercises to help you understand and memorize these words better.

Please, fill in the blanks below with the correct words. The English text will help you find the correct place for each word. To make it a bit harder, try not to look at the meaning of the bolded Bulgarian words. Note that the word “проучване” is used twice. 

Words: (редакция, доклад, ресурс, проучване, критика, програма, оценка, проект)

В края на годината служителят на компанията състави ___________, където включи своята ___________ за постигнатото през годината. Той беше направил подробно ___________ на човешкия ___________ и доколко предвидената за тази година ___________ беше изпълнена. Директорът не беше доволен от постигнатото и започна безмилостна ___________, насочена към персонала. За следващата година той заповяда да се направи ново ___________ на клиентите, конкурентите и стратегиите и да се направи цялостна ___________ на политиката. Предстоeше и осъществяването на нов ___________.

V kraya na godinata sluzhitelyat na kompaniyata sаstavi ___________, kаdeto vklyuchi svoyata ___________ za postignatoto prez godinata. Toy beshe napravil podrobno ___________ na choveshkiya ___________ i dokolko predvidenata za tazi godina ___________ beshe izpalnena. Direktorat ne beshe dovolen ot postignatoto i zapochna bezmilostna ___________, nasochena kam personala. Za sledvashtata godina toy zapovyada da se napravi novo ___________ na klientite, konkurentite i strategiite i da se napravi tsyalostna ___________ na politikata. Predstoeshe i osashtestvyavaneto na nov ___________.

At the end of the year, the company’s employee compiled a report, which included his assessment of the achievements during the year. He had carried out a detailed study of human resources and the extent to which the program planned for this year had been implemented. The director was dissatisfied with what had been achieved and began relentless criticism of the staff. For the next year, he ordered new research of customers, competitors, and strategies to be performed, along with a comprehensive revision of the policy. A new project was forthcoming. 

*You can check your answers at the end of this review.

Advanced Business Words

Here’s a list of 25 useful Bulgarian business words to know at the advanced level. These words will give you a leg up in the business world, but if you want even more practical vocabulary, make sure to check out our article on Bulgarian business phrases.

#1 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
устойчивостustoychivost sustainability 
Example:Тази година компанията може да се похвали с по-голяма устойчивост в икономическата криза.Tazi godina kompaniyata mozhe da se pohvali s po-golyama ustoychivost v ikonomicheskata kriza.
Meaning:This year, the company boasts greater sustainability in the economic crisis. 

#2 Bulgarian adjectivePronunciationTranslation
прозраченprozrachentransparent
Example:Условията по договора са прозрачни и не съдържат скрити такси.Usloviyata po dogovora sa prozrachni i ne sadarzhat skriti taksi.
Meaning:The terms and conditions of the contract are transparent and do not contain hidden fees.

#3 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
стабилностstabilnost stability 
Example:Мениджърът се надява да допринесе за по-голямата стабилност на компанията.Menidzharat se nadyava da doprinese za po-golyamata stabilnost na kompaniyata.
Meaning:The manager hopes to contribute to the greater stability of the company. 

#4 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
разрастванеrazrastvane expansion 
Example:Благодарение на новия продукт последва разрастване на базата клиенти.Blagodarenie na noviya produkt posledva razrastvane na bazata klienti.
Meaning:Thanks to the new product, an expansion of the customer base followed.

#5 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
политикаpolitika policy 
Example:Настоящата политика на компанията съдържа всичките ѝ цели.Nastoyashtata politika na kompaniyata sadarzha vsichkite i tseli.
Meaning:The current policy of the company contains all its goals. 

#6 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
мисияmisiya mission 
Example:Основната мисия на компанията е да удовлетвори нуждите на клиентите.Osnovnata misiya na kompaniyata e da udovletvori nuzhdite na klientite.
Meaning:The main mission of the company is to meet the needs of customers. 

#7 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
клиентелаklientelaclientele
Example:В условията на силна конкуренция, всеки собственик на бизнес се стреми да привлече по-голяма клиентела.V usloviyata na silna konkurentsiya, vseki sobstvenik na biznes se stremi da privleche po-golyama klientela.
Meaning:In the face of strong competition, every business owner strives to attract more clientele.

#8 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
търговецtargovets merchant 
Example:Този търговец предложи най-изгодната оферта.Tozi targovets predlozhi nay-izgodnata oferta.
Meaning:This merchant offered the best deal. 

#9 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
доставчикdostavchik supplier 
Example:Необходимо е да се свържем с този доставчик за нова поръчка.Neobhodimo e da se svarzhem s tozi dostavchik za nova porachka.
Meaning:We need to contact this supplier for a new order. 

#10 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
моделmodel model 
Example:Следването на подходящ бизнес модел е от съществено значение за компанията.Sledvaneto na podhodyasht biznes model e ot sashtestveno znachenie za kompaniyata.
Meaning:Following an appropriate business model is essential for the company. 

#11 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
търговска маркаtargovska markatrademark
Example:Това не е добре позната търговска марка.Tova ne e dobre poznata targovska marka.
Meaning:This is not a well-known trademark. 

#12 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
организацияorganizatsiyaorganization
Example:Фирмата се радва на добра организация, съдействаща за успешното извършване на работата.Firmata se radva na dobra organizatsiya, sadeystvashta za uspeshnoto izvarshvane na rabotata.
Meaning:The company enjoys good organization, contributing to the successful completion of the work. 

#13 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
акцияaktsiya action 
Example:Общността проведе нова акция по засаждане на дръвчета през почивните дни.Obshtnostta provede nova aktsiya po zasazhdane na dravcheta prez pochivnite dni.
Meaning:The community held a new action (campaign) of planting trees over the weekend. 

Someone Planting a Tree in Soil

The community held a new action of planting trees over the weekend.

#14 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
дружествоdruzhestvo company / organization
Example:Това дружество беше учредено преди 5 години.Tova druzhestvo beshe uchredeno predi 5 godini.
Meaning:This company was established five years ago. 

#15 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
бюджетbyudzhet budget
Example:Заради съкратения бюджет фирмата не успя да осъществи всичките си планове.Zaradi sakrateniya byudzhet firmata ne uspya da osashtestvi vsichkite si planove.
Meaning:Due to the reduced budget, the company could not implement all its plans. 

#16 Bulgarian adjectivePronunciationTranslation
рентабиленrentabilen profitable 
Example:Избирането на тази продуктова линия не е рентабилно за компанията.Izbiraneto na tazi produktova liniya ne e rentabilno za kompaniyata.
Meaning:Choosing this product line is not profitable for the company.

#17 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
структураstrukturastructure
Example:Всеки бизнес план съдържа добре разработена структура.Vseki biznes plan sadarzha dobre razrabotena struktura.
Meaning:Each business plan contains a well-developed structure. 

#18 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
реализацияrealizatsiya realization 
Example:Плановете на компанията бяха добри, но до тяхната реализация така и не се стигна.Planovete na kompaniyata byaha dobri, no do tyahnata realizatsiya taka i ne se stigna.
Meaning:The company’s plans were good, but their realization was not completed. 

#19 Bulgarian adjectivePronunciationTranslation
доходоносенdohodonosenprofitable
Example:Този бизнес е много доходоносен.Tozi biznes e mnogo dohodonosen.
Meaning:This business is very profitable. 

#20 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
командировкаkomandirovkabusiness trip
Example:Част от служителите заминаха на командировка.Chast ot sluzhitelite zaminaha na komandirovka.
Meaning:Some of the employees went on a business trip. 

Two Business People Standing in an Airport with Luggage

Some of the employees went on a business trip.

#21 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
заявкаzayavka request 
Example:Ще ти пусна заявка за този продукт.Shte ti pusna zayavka za tozi produkt.
Meaning:I will send you a request for this product. 

#22 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
кредитkreditloan
Example:Поради липса на достатъчно средства се наложи да тегля кредит.Poradi lipsa na dostatachno sredstva se nalozhi da teglya kredit.
Meaning:Due to a lack of funds, I had to take out a loan. 

#23 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
капиталkapitalcapital
Example:За да се стартира даден бизнес, е необходим начален капитал.Za da se startira daden biznes, e neobhodim nachalen kapital.
Meaning:Starting a business requires initial capital.

#24 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
инвестицияinvestitsiyainvestment
Example:Ние ще участваме в тази инвестиция.Nie shte uchastvame v tazi investitsiya.
Meaning:We will participate in this investment. 

#25 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
задължениеzadalzhenie debt 
Example:Компанията има неизплатено задължение по последния кредит.Kompaniyata ima neizplateno zadalzhenie po posledniya kredit.
Meaning:The company has an outstanding debt on the last loan.
    → Ready to test your listening skills? You can head over to BulgarianPod101’s YouTube channel, watch this listening comprehension video of a Bulgarian business presentation, and then take the test at the end!

Practical Exercise for Advanced Business Words

This exercise contains two columns: one with Bulgarian business words and the other with their English translations. Connect each Bulgarian word with its corresponding English translation.

търговец (targovets) 

доходоносен (dohodonosen) 

реализация (realizatsiya) 

бюджет (byudzhet) 

командировка (komandirovka) 

политика (politika) 

клиентела (klientela) 

разрастване (razrastvane) 

инвестиция (investitsiya)

устойчивост (ustoychivost) 

кредит (kredit)  

стабилност (stabilnost) 

прозрачен (prozrachen)
expansion  

policy  

merchant  

sustainability  

stability  

business trip 

budget  

transparent 

clientele 

investment 

profitable  

loan 

realization 

Advanced Medical Words

Do you plan on studying medicine in Bulgaria, or perhaps finding a job here in the medical field? In either case, learning the advanced Bulgarian words below will give you a great headstart on your dreams. 

#1 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
биопсияbiopsiyabiopsy 
Example:Биопсията ще покаже дали има наличие на злокачествено заболяване.Biopsiyata shte pokazhe dali ima nalichie na zlokachestveno zabolyavane.
Meaning:The biopsy will show if there is any malignancy.

#2 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
деменцияdementsiya dementia 
Example:Възрастният човек страдаше от деменция и често се губеше.Vazrastniyat chovek stradashe ot dementsiya i chesto se gubeshe.
Meaning:The old man suffered from dementia and was often lost. 

#3 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
хипогликемияhipoglikemiyahypoglycemia
Example:Резкият спад на кръвната захар води до хипогликемия.Rezkiyat spad na kravnata zahar vodi do hipoglikemiya.
Meaning:A sudden drop in blood sugar leads to hypoglycemia.

#4 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
мутацияmutatsiyamutation
Example:Процесът на израждане на клетките се нарича мутация.Protsesat na izrazhdane na kletkite se naricha mutatsiya.
Meaning:The process of cell degeneration is called a mutation. 

#5 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
щамshtam strain 
Example:Миналата седмица беше открит нов щам на коронавируса.Minalata sedmitsa beshe otkrit nov shtam na koronavirusa.
Meaning:A new strain of the coronavirus was discovered last week. 

#6 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
акнеakneacne
Example:Младежите често страдат от акне, което е трудно лечимо.Mladezhite chesto stradat ot akne, koeto e trudno lechimo.
Meaning:Young people often suffer from acne, which is difficult to treat.

#7 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
акупунктураakupunkturaacupuncture
Example:Наред с традиционната медицина, някои предпочитат да приложат и акупунктура.Nared s traditsionnata meditsina, nyakoi predpochitat da prilozhat i akupunktura.
Meaning:Along with traditional medicine, some prefer to use acupuncture. 

#8 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
ампутацияamputatsiya amputation 
Example:Измръзването на крака беше толкова голямо, че се наложи ампутация на единия пръст.Izmrazvaneto na kraka beshe tolkova golyamo, che se nalozhi amputatsiya na ediniya prast.
Meaning:The frostbite of the foot was so great that it required the amputation of a toe. 

#9 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
ангинаangina tonsillitis 
Example:Като вторична инфекция от грипа се появи гнойна ангина.Kato vtorichna infektsiya ot gripa se poyavi gnoyna angina.
Meaning:As a secondary influenza infection, purulent tonsillitis appeared. 

#10 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
артерияarteriyaartery 
Example:Това е главната артерия, която отвежда кръвта към сърцето.Tova e glavnata arteriya, koyato otvezhda kravta kam sartseto.
Meaning:This is the main artery that carries blood to the heart. 

#11 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
венаvenavein
Example:Във вените му тече българска кръв.Vav venite mu teche balgarska krav.
Meaning:Bulgarian blood flows in his veins. 

#12 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
ваксинаvaksinavaccine
Example:С увеличаване на заболеваемостта все повече хора си биха ваксина.S uvelichavane na zabolevaemostta vse poveche hora si biha vaksina.
Meaning:As the incidence of disease increased, more and more people got vaccinated. 

#13 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
жлезаzhlezagland
Example:Предстои ми преглед на щитовидната жлеза.Predstoi mi pregled na shtitovidnata zhleza.
Meaning:I’m up for an examination of my thyroid gland. 

#14 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
жлъчкаzhlachkabile
Example:Той често се оплакваше от болки в корема и се оказа, че има възпалена жлъчка.Toy chesto se oplakvashe ot bolki v korema i se okaza, che ima vazpalena zhlachka.
Meaning:He often complained about abdominal pain, and it turned out that his gallbladder was inflamed. 

#15 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
инсулинinsulininsulin
Example:Диабетикът се нуждае от редовни дози инсулин.Diabetikat se nuzhdae ot redovni dozi insulin.
Meaning:A diabetic needs regular doses of insulin. 

#16 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
интубацияintubatsiyaintubation 
Example:След като той вече не можеше да диша добре, се стигна до интубация.Sled kato toy veche ne mozheshe da disha dobre, se stigna do intubatsiya.
Meaning:After he was no longer able to breathe well, intubation ensued.

#17 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
инфекцияinfektsiya infection 
Example:Порязването с нож може да доведе до голяма инфекция в областта на раната.Poryazvaneto s nozh mozhe da dovede do golyama infektsiya v oblastta na ranata.
Meaning:A knife cut can lead to a large infection in the wounded area. 

#18 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
парализаparaliza paralysis 
Example:В следствие на катастрофата пациентът беше диагностициран с парализа на долните крайници.V sledstvie na katastrofata patsientat beshe diagnostitsiran s paraliza na dolnite kraynitsi.
Meaning:As a result of the accident, the patient was diagnosed with paralysis of the lower limbs. 

#19 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
патоген patogenpathogen
Example:В момента учени изследват появата на нов патоген.V momenta ucheni izsledvat poyavata na nov patogen.
Meaning:Scientists are currently investigating the emergence of a new pathogen. 

#20 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
реанимацияreanimatsiyaintensive care
Example:Състоянието му крайно се влоши и го преместиха в отделението по реанимация.Sastoyanieto mu krayno se vloshi i go premestiha v otdelenieto po reanimatsiya.
Meaning:His condition deteriorated, and he was transferred to the intensive care unit.

#21 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
хемоглобинhemoglobin hemoglobin 
Example:Преди кръводаряването непременно проверяват нивото на хемоглобина.Predi kravodaryavaneto nepremenno proveryavat nivoto na hemoglobina.
Meaning:Before donating blood, be sure to check the hemoglobin level. 

#22 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
хепатитhepatit hepatitis 
Example:Хепатитът е известен още като болестта на мръсните ръце.Hepatitat e izvesten oshte kato bolestta na mrasnite ratse.
Meaning:Hepatitis is also known as the disease of dirty hands. 

#23 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
хипертонияhipertoniya hypertension 
Example:Пациентът с хипертония се оплака от често сърцебиене.Patsientat s hipertoniya se oplaka ot chesto sartsebiene.
Meaning:The patient with hypertension complained of palpitations.

#24 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
хремаhrema runny nose
Example:Много хора са алергични и страдат от хрема през пролетта.Mnogo hora sa alergichni i stradat ot hrema prez proletta.
Meaning:Many people have allergies and suffer from a runny nose in the spring. 

#25 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
хрущялhrushtyal cartilage 
Example:Дефектите на ставния хрущял водят до увреждане на коляното.Defektite na stavniya hrushtyal vodyat do uvrezhdane na kolyanoto.
Meaning:Defects in the articular cartilage lead to knee damage. 

#26 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
сърцебиенеsartsebienepalpitation
Example:Когато се притесня много, получавам сърцебиене.Kogato se pritesnya mnogo, poluchavam sartsebiene.
Meaning:When I worry a lot, I get palpitations. 
    → Want to expand your medical vocabulary even further? See this lesson about medicine on BulgarianPod101.com.

Practical Exercise for Advanced Medical Words

While medical terms can be quite challenging, we’ve prepared a simple (and fun!) exercise for you. Just connect the Bulgarian medical term with the correct picture. You can check your answers at the end of this article.


ваксина (vaksina)
Runny Nose

хрема (hrema)
Vaccine

акне (akne)
Acupuncture

вена (vena)
Acne

акупунктура (akupunktura)
Vein

Advanced Legal Words

You might not be able to use these advanced Bulgarian terms in everyday life, but knowing them will allow you to engage in more complex conversations and maybe even help you land a job in the legal world!  

#1 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
иск isk claim
Example:В съда беше внесен иск срещу обвиняемия.V sada beshe vnesen isk sreshtu obvinyaemiya.
Meaning:A claim was filed in court against the defendant. 

#2 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
прокурор prokurorprosecutor
Example:На заседанието прокурорът изложи всички доказателства за виновността на обвиняемия.Na zasedanieto prokurorat izlozhi vsichki dokazatelstva za vinovnostta na obvinyaemiya.
Meaning:At the hearing, the prosecutor presented all the evidence of the defendant’s guilt. 

#3 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
адвокат advokat lawyer
Example:Адвокатът опита да намери смекчаващи вината обстоятелства в случая на своя клиент.Advokatat opita da nameri smekchavashti vinata obstoyatelstva v sluchaya na svoya klient.
Meaning:The lawyer tried to find mitigating circumstances in his client’s case. 

#4 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
защита zashtitadefense
Example:Всеки обвиняем има право на защита.Vseki obvinyaem ima pravo na zashtita.
Meaning:Every defendant has the right to a defense. 

#5 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
ответник otvetnikdefendant
Example:Ответникът трябва да се яви в съда в 11 ч.Otvetnikat tryabva da se yavi v sada v 11 chasa.
Meaning:The defendant must appear in court at 11 o’clock. 

#6 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
ищец ishtetsplaintiff
Example:По думите на ищеца вие сте се забавили с плащането.Po dumite na ishtetsa vie ste se zabavili s plashtaneto.
Meaning:According to the plaintiff, you delayed the payment.

#7 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
съд sadcourt
Example:Съдията влезе в съда.Sadiyata vleze v sada.
Meaning:The judge entered the court. 

Court
#8 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
заседание zasedaniehearing 
Example:Заседанието на съда започна.Zasedanieto na sada zapochna.
Meaning:The court hearing began. 

#9 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
разпит razpitquestioning
Example:Всички свидетели по делото бяха поканени на разпит.Vsichki svideteli po deloto byaha pokaneni na razpit.
Meaning:All witnesses in the case were summoned for questioning. 

#10 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
свидетел svidetel witness 
Example:Нито един свидетел не опроверга обвинението.Nito edin svidetel ne oproverga obvinenieto.
Meaning:No witness denied the accusation. 

#11 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
заседател zasedateljuror
Example:Заседанието започна при липсата на един съдебен заседател.Zasedanieto zapochna pri lipsata na edin sadeben zasedatel.
Meaning:The hearing began in the absence of a juror. 

#12 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
престъпление prestaplenie crime
Example:Това престъпление беше извършено през нощта.Tova prestaplenie beshe izvarsheno prez noshtta.
Meaning:This crime was committed at night. 

#13 Bulgarian adjectivePronunciationTranslation
обвиняем obvinyaemdefendant
Example:Най-близкият на убития беше обвиняем.Nay-blizkiyat na ubitiya beshe obvinyaem.
Meaning:The person closest to the victim was the defendant. 

#14 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
престъпник prestapnikcriminal
Example:Не си личи по външния му вид, че е престъпник.Ne si lichi po vanshniya mu vid, che e prestapnik.
Meaning:He doesn’t look like a criminal. 

#15 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
вина vina guilt
Example:Мъжът не чувстваше никаква вина за деянието.Mazhat ne chuvstvashe nikakva vina za deyanieto.
Meaning:The man felt no regret for the act. 

#16 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
доказателство dokazatelstvо evidence 
Example:Съдът събираше доказателства за виновността на обвиняемия.Sadat sabirashe dokazatelstva za vinovnostta na obvinyaemiya.
Meaning:The court was gathering evidence of the defendant’s guilt. 

#17 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
наказание nakazanie judgement
Example:Наложеното наказание е съразмерно с вината.Nalozhenoto nakazanie e sarazmerno s vinata.
Meaning:The judgement imposed is proportionate to the guilt. 

#18 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
право pravoright
Example:Обвиняемият има права, които трябва да се спазват при разпита.Obvinyaemiyat ima prava, koito tryabva da se spazvat pri razpita.
Meaning:The defendant has rights that must be respected during the interrogation. 

#19 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
обезщетение obezshteteniecompensation
Example:Освен наказание с лишаване от свобода, обвиняемият трябваше да плати и обезщетение.Osven nakazanie s lishavane ot svoboda, obvinyaemiyat tryabvashe da plati i obezshtetenie.
Meaning:In addition to imprisonment, the defendant had to pay compensation as well. 

#20 Bulgarian adjectivePronunciationTranslation
доживотен dozhivoten lifelong
Example:Съдът не наложи доживотен затвор, както всички очакваха.Sadat ne nalozhi dozhivoten zatvor, kakto vsichki ochakvakha.
Meaning:The court did not impose a life sentence, as everyone expected. 

#21 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
помилване pomilvane pardon 
Example:Адвокатът пледираше за помилване на обвиняемия.Advokatat pledirashe za pomilvane na obvinyaemiya.
Meaning:The lawyer pleaded for pardon of the defendant. 

#22 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
затвор zatvorprison 
Example:Осъдиха престъпника на 2 години затвор.Osadiha prestapnika na 2 godini zatvor.
Meaning:The criminal was sentenced to 2 years in prison.

#23 Bulgarian adjectivePronunciationTranslation
невинен nevineninnocent
Example:Осъденият каза, че е невинен.Osadeniyat kaza, che e nevinen.
Meaning:The convict said he was innocent. 

#24 Bulgarian adjectivePronunciationTranslation
освободен osvobodenreleased
Example:Той плати гаранцията, за да бъде освободен.Toy plati garantsiyata, za da bade osvoboden.
Meaning:He paid the bail to be released. 

#25 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
преследване presledvane prosecution
Example:Съдебно преследване грози нарушителите на закона.Sadebno presledvane grozi narushitelite na zakona.
Meaning:Violators face prosecution. 

Practical Exercise for Advanced Legal Words

Fill in the blanks with the correct advanced legal word out of the three options presented.

Всеки ____________(съд, затвор, престъпник) трябва да понесе ____________(заседание, наказание, доказателство).
Vseki (sad, zatvor, prestapnik) tryabva da ponese (zasedanie, nakazanie, dokazatelstvo).
Every criminal must bear judgement.

Всеки е ____________(невинен, доживотен, обвиняем) до доказване на ____________(помилването, преследването, вината).
Vseki e (nevinen, dozhivoten, obvinyaem) do dokazvane na (pomilvaneto, presledvaneto, vinata).
Everyone is innocent until proven guilty.

Присъдата на обвиняемия беше ____________(освободен, обвиняем, доживотен) затвор.
Prisadata na obvinyaemiya beshe (osvoboden, obvinyaem, dozhivoten) zatvor.
The defendant was sentenced to life imprisonment.

Издадена бе окончателна ____________(защита, присъда, вина) без право на ____________(помилване, обезщетение, доказателство).
Izdadena be okonchatelna (zashtita, prisada, vina) bez pravo na (pomilvane, obezshtetenie, dokazatelstvo).
A final sentence was issued without the right to pardon.

Адвокатът не можа да намери ____________(престъпление, заседание, доказателство) за оправдаването на ____________(престъпника, прокурора, ищеца).
Advokatat ne mozha da nameri (prestaplenie, zasedanie, dokazatelstvo) za opravdavaneto na (prestapnika, prokurora, ishtetsa).
The lawyer could not find evidence for the acquittal of the criminal.

Alternative Words for Acing Bulgarian Writing/Essays

If you would like to improve your writing style so that it sounds closer to a native’s level, we suggest you substitute the following words with their more advanced synonyms. This will make your essays more impressive and powerful. We have categorized our suggestions based on part of speech.


Nouns

#1 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
Replaceмониторингmonitoringmonitoring
Withнаблюдениеnablyudeniemonitoring

Example:
Услугата включва (денонощен мониторинг) денонощно наблюдение.Uslugata vklyuchva (denonoshten monitoring) denonoshtno nablyudenie.
Meaning:The service includes round-the-clock monitoring. 

#2  Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
Replace локацияlokatsiyalocation 
With местоположениеmestopolozhenielocation 
Example:Можете да споделите (локацията) местоположението си.Mozhete da spodelite (lokatsiyata) mestopolozhenieto si.
Meaning:You can share your location. 

#3  Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
Replace експозицияekspozitsiyaexposition
With изложбаizlozhbaexposition / exhibition

Example:
Днес беше открита нова (експозиция) изложба в града на розите.Dnes beshe otkrita nova (ekspozitsiya) izlozhba v grada na rozite.
Meaning:A new exhibition opened today in The City of Roses. 

#4  Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
Replace евентeventevent
With събитиеsabitieevent
Example:(Официалният евент) Официалното събитие беше посетено от президента.(Ofitsialniyat event) Ofitsialnoto sabitie beshe poseteno ot prezidenta.
Meaning:The official event was attended by the President. 

#5  Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
Replace шоуshou show
With представлениеpredstavlenieshow
Example:Много знаменити актьори участваха в това (шоу) представление.Mnogo znameniti aktyori uchastvaha v tova (shou) predstavlenie.
Meaning:Many famous actors took part in this show. 

#6  Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
Replace мотивацияmotivatsiyamotivation
With подбудаpodbudamotivation
Example:(Мотивацията) Подбудата му е да направи света по-добър.(Motivatsiyata) Podbudata mu e da napravi sveta po-dobar.
Meaning:His motivation is to make the world a better place. 

#7 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
Replace красотаkrasotabeauty
With прелестprelestbeauty
Example:Под семплата външност се крие истинска (красота) прелест.Pod semplata vanshnost se krie istinska (krasota) prelest.
Meaning:Beneath the simple appearance lies a real beauty. 

#8 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
Replace печалбаpechalbaprofit
With облагаoblagaprofit
Example:Той се възползва от тази материална (печалба) облага.Toy se vazpolzva ot tazi materialna (pechalba) oblaga.
Meaning:He takes advantage of this material profit. 

#9 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
Replace съгласиеsaglasieunderstanding
With разбирателствоrazbiratelstvounderstanding
Example:Хубаво е да живеем в (съгласие) разбирателство.Hubavo e da zhiveem v (saglasie) razbiratelstvo.
Meaning:It is good to live in understanding. 

#10 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
Replace заплатаzaplatasalary
With трудово възнаграждениеtrudovo vaznagrazhdeniesalary
Example:Всеки месец получавам (заплата) трудово възнаграждение.Vseki mesets poluchavam (zaplata) trudovo vaznagrazhdenie.
Meaning:Every month, I receive a salary. 

#11 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
Replace директорdirektormanager 
With управителupravitelmanager 

Example:
Днес (директорът) управителят на фирмата събра работниците на кратко събрание.Dnes (direktorat) upravitelyat na firmata sabra rabotnitsite na kratko sabranie.
Meaning:Today, the company’s manager gathered the workers for a short meeting. 

#12 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
Replace кешkeshcash
With пари в бройpari v broycash
Example:Плащането е (в кеш) с пари в брой.Plashtaneto e (v kesh) s pari v broy.
Meaning:Payment is in cash. 

#13 Bulgarian nounPronunciationTranslation
Replace офертаofertaoffer
With предложениеpredlozhenieoffer
Example:Това е много (изгодна оферта) изгодно предложение.Tova e mnogo (izgodna oferta) izgodno predlozhenie.
Meaning:This is a very good offer. 

Verbs

#1 Bulgarian verbPronunciationTranslation
Replace стартирамstartiramto start
With започвамzapochvam to start

Example:
Днес планирам да (стартирам) започна нов проект.Dnes planiram da (startiram) zapochna nov proekt.
Meaning:Today, I plan to start a new project. 

#2 Bulgarian verbPronunciationTranslation
Replace планирамplaniramto plan
With крояkroya to plan
* кроя is used in a negative context and can be translated as “to be up for mischief.”
Example:Веднага разбрах, че (планираш) кроиш да направиш нещо лошо.Vednaga razbrah, che (planirash) kroish da napravish neshto losho.
Meaning:I immediately realized that you were planning to do something bad. 

#3 Bulgarian verbPronunciationTranslation
Replace планирамplaniramto plan
With възнамерявамvaznameryavam to plan
* Аnother verb for планирам, but this time with a positive meaning
Example:Скоро (планирам) възнамерявам да създам семейство.Skoro (planiram) vaznameryavam da sazdam semeystvo.
Meaning:I plan to start a family soon. 

#4 Bulgarian verbPronunciationTranslation
Replace създавамsazdavamto create
With творяtvorya to create
Example:Отдавна не съм (създавал) творил нещо ново.Otdavna ne sam (sazdaval) tvoril neshto novo.
Meaning:I haven’t created anything new for a long time. 

#5 Bulgarian verbPronunciationTranslation
Replace идвамidvamto come / to arrive
With пристигамpristigam to arrive
* While идвам is usually used for coming by foot, пристигам is used for arriving by vehicle.
Example:Утре (идвам) пристигам с автобуса на автогарата.Utre (idvam) pristigam s avtobusa na avtogarata.
Meaning:Tomorrow, I will arrive by bus at the bus station. 

#6 Bulgarian verbPronunciationTranslation
Replace мечтаяmechtayato dream
With копнеяkopneya to dream / to long for
* While мечтая is not incorrect, копнея shows a higher degree of desire.
Example:Отдавна (мечтая) копнея да срещна хора като вас.Otdavna (mechtaya) kopneya da sreshtna hora kato vas.
Meaning:I have dreamed of meeting people like you for a long time. 

#7 Bulgarian verbPronunciationTranslation
Replace мисляmislyato think
With считамschitamto think
Example:Определено (мисля) считам, че предложението е добро.Opredeleno (mislya) schitam, che predlozhenieto e dobro.
Meaning:I definitely think the proposal is good. 

#8 Bulgarian verbPronunciationTranslation
Replace учаuchato study
With изучавамizuchavamto study
Example:Дълги години (учех) изучавах историята на България.Dalgi godini (ucheh) izuchavah istoriyata na Balgariya.
Meaning:For many years, I studied the history of Bulgaria

#9 Bulgarian verbPronunciationTranslation
Replace разбирамrazbiramto understand 
With схващамshvashtam to understand 
Example:Той може много добре да (разбере) схване разликата.Toy mozhe mnogo dobre da (razbere) shvane razlikata.
Meaning:He can understand the difference very well. 

#10 Bulgarian verbPronunciationTranslation
Replace харчаharchato spend 
With изразходвамizrazhodvam to spend 
Example:Налага се да (изхарча) изразходя всичките си пари за този проект.Nalaga se da (izharcha) izrazhodya vsichkite si pari za tozi proekt.
Meaning:I have to spend all my money on this project. 

#11 Bulgarian verbPronunciationTranslation
Replace оглагамotlagamto postpone 
With отрочвамotsrochvam to postpone 
Example:Няма да се наложи да (отлагам) отсрочвам изпита.Nyama da se nalozhi da (otlagam) otsrochvam izpita.
Meaning:I will not have to postpone the exam. 

#12 Bulgarian verbPronunciationTranslation
Replace правяpravyato make
With изработвамizrabotvam to make
Example:От много отдавна (правя) изработвам глинени съдове.Ot mnogo otdavna (pravya) izrabotvam glineni sadove.
Meaning:I have been making pottery for a long time.

#13 Bulgarian verbPronunciationTranslation
Replace консултирамkonsultiramto consult 
With съветвамsavetvam to advise 
Example:По този въпрос трябва да се (консултирам) посъветвам със специалист.Po tozi vapros tryabva da se (konsultiram) posavetvam sas spetsialist.
Meaning:I should get advised by a specialist on this issue. 

Adjectives

#1 Bulgarian adjectivePronunciationTranslation
Replace голямgolyambig/great
With огроменogromen great/huge 
Example:По този въпрос имам (голям) огромен опит.Po tozi vapros imam (golyam) ogromen opit.
Meaning:I have great experience in this matter. 

#2 Bulgarian adjectivePronunciationTranslation
Replace спокоенspokoencalm 
With хладнокръвенhladnokraven cold-blooded 
Example:Той даде съвсем (спокоен) хладнокръвен отговор на въпроса.Toy dade savsem (spokoen) hladnokraven otgovor na vaprosa.
Meaning:He gave a cold-blooded answer to the question. 

#3 Bulgarian adjectivePronunciationTranslation
Replace решителенreshitelensteadfast
With непоколебимnepokolebimunwavering
Example:След като веднъж вземе решение, той е (решителен) непоколебим.Sled kato vednazh vzeme reshenie, toy e (reshitelen) nepokolebim.
Meaning:Once he makes a decision, he is unwavering.

#4 Bulgarian adjectivePronunciationTranslation
Replace уморенumorentired
With изтощенiztoshten tired/exhausted 
Example:Чувствам се (уморен) изтощен след дългата работа.Chuvstvam se (umoren) iztoshten sled dalgata rabota.
Meaning:I feel exhausted after long work. 

#5 Bulgarian adjectivePronunciationTranslation
Replace интересенintereseninteresting
With интригуващintriguvasht intriguing
Example:Този въпрос е много (интересен) интригуващ за мен.Tozi vapros e mnogo (interesen) intriguvasht za men.
Meaning:This question is very intriguing to me. 

#6 Bulgarian adjectivePronunciationTranslation
Replace работливrabotlivhardworking
With трудолюбивtrudolyubivhardworking
Example:Човекът е много (работлив) трудолюбив.Chovekat e mnogo (rabotliv) trudolyubiv.
Meaning:The man is very hardworking.

#7 Bulgarian adjectivePronunciationTranslation
Replace неподходящnepodhodyashtunsuitable
With неуместенneumesteninappropriate
Example:Твоят въпрос е съвсем (неподходящ) неуместен.Tvoyat vapros e savsem (nepodhodyasht) neumesten.
Meaning:Your question is completely inappropriate. 

#8 Bulgarian adjectivePronunciationTranslation
Replace безинтересенbezinteresenuninteresting
With скученskuchenboring
Example:Този разказ е (безинтересен) скучен.Tozi razkaz e (bezinteresen) skuchen.
Meaning:This story is boring. 

#9 Bulgarian adjectivePronunciationTranslation
Replace модеренmoderenmodern
With съвремененsavremenen contemporary 
Example:Този (модерен) съвременен стил ми харесва.Tozi (moderen) savremenen stil mi haresva.
Meaning:I like this contemporary style. 

#10 Bulgarian adjectivePronunciationTranslation
Replace богатbogatrich 
With заможенzamozhenwealthy
Example:(Богатият) Заможният човек отдели малко пари за каузата.(Bogatiyat) Zamozhniyat chovek otdeli malko pari za kauzata.
Meaning:The wealthy man set aside some money for the cause. 

Adverb

#1 Bulgarian adverbPronunciationTranslation
Replace много mnogovery/too
With твърде tvarde too
Example:Този камък е (много) твърде тежък.Tozi kamak e (mnogo) tvarde tezhak.
Meaning:This stone is too heavy. 

#2 Bulgarian adverbPronunciationTranslation
Replace трудно trudnodifficult
With непосилно neposilnoimpossible
Example:Тази задача е (трудна) непосилна.Tazi zadacha e (trudna) neposilna.
Meaning:This task is (difficult) impossible. 

#3 Bulgarian adverbPronunciationTranslation
Replace нетърпимо netarpimointolerable
With непоносимо neponosimounbearable
Example:Положението е (нетърпимо) непоносимо.Polozhenieto e (netarpimo) neponosimo.
Meaning:The situation is unbearable. 

#4 Bulgarian adverbPronunciationTranslation
Replace постоянно postoyannoconstantly
With неизменно neizmenno constantly
Example:Той (постоянно) неизменно твърдеше, че има голям опит.Toy (postoyanno) neizmenno tvardeshe, che ima golyam opit.
Meaning:He constantly claimed to have extensive experience. 

#5 Bulgarian adverbPronunciationTranslation
Replace щедро shtedrogenerous
With великодушноvelikodushno generous
Example:Той реши да постъпи (щедро) великодушно към бедняка.Toy reshi da postapi (shtedro) velikodushno kam bednyaka.
Meaning:He decided to be generous to the poor man. 

How can BulgarianPod101 help you learn Bulgarian?

BulgarianPod101 hopes that this comprehensive guide to advanced Bulgarian vocabulary words helps you advance further in your knowledge of and experience with the Bulgarian language. It can be of great aid in preparation for your advanced-level Bulgarian language exam, and it’s a practical tool for reaching your learning goals.  

Since the advanced level is very challenging, you may need personal guidance to help you progress at this stage. If so, you can turn to our MyTeacher service to choose a native and experienced Bulgarian teacher who understands your difficulties and knows how to help you successfully overcome them.

We would love to hear your feedback about this article. Please don’t hesitate to share your thoughts with us in the comments below, and we’ll help you out the best we can. 

And now, it’s time to check your answers to the practical exercises.

Answers to Practical Exercises

Advanced Academic Words

В края на годината служителят на компанията състави доклад, където включи своята оценка за постигнатото през годината. Той беше направил подробно проучване на човешкия ресурс и доколко предвидената за тази година програма беше изпълнена. Директорът не беше доволен от постигнатото и започна безмилостна критика, насочена към персонала. За следващата година той заповяда да се направи ново проучване на клиентите, конкурентите и стратегиите и да се направи цялостна редакция на политиката. Предстоeше и осъществяването на нов проект.

V kraya na godinata sluzhitelyat na kompaniyata sаstavi doklad, kаdeto vklyuchi svoyata otsenka za postignatoto prez godinata. Toy beshe napravil podrobno prouchvane na choveshkiya resurs i dokolko predvidenata za tazi godina programa beshe izpalnena. Direktorat ne beshe dovolen ot postignatoto i zapochna bezmilostna kritika, nasochena kam personala. Za sledvashtata godina toy zapovyada da se napravi novo prouchvane na klientite, konkurentite i strategiite i da se napravi tsyalostna redaktsiya na politikata. Predstoeshe i osashtestvyavaneto na nov proekt.

At the end of the year, the company’s employee compiled a report, which included his assessment of the achievements during the year. He had carried out a detailed study of human resources and the extent to which the program planned for this year had been implemented. The director was dissatisfied with what had been achieved and began relentless criticism of the staff. For the next year, he ordered new research of customers, competitors, and strategies to be performed, along with a comprehensive revision of the policy. A new project was forthcoming.

Advanced Business Words

търговец (targovets)

доходоносен (dohodonosen)

реализация (realizatsiya)

бюджет (byudzhet)

командировка (komandirovka)

политика (politika)

клиентела (clientela)

разрастване (razrastvane)

инвестиция (investitsiya)

устойчивост (ustoychivost)

кредит (kredit)

стабилност (stabilnost)

прозрачен (prozrachen)
merchant 

profitable

realization 

budget 

business trip 

policy 

clientele

expansion 

investment

sustainability 

loan

stability 

transparent

Advanced Medical Words

хрема (hrema)
Runny Nose
ваксина (vaksina)
Vaccine
акупунктура (akupunktura)
Acupuncture
акне (akne)
Acne
вена (vena)
Vein

Advanced Legal Words

Всеки престъпник трябва да понесе наказание.
Vseki prestapnik tryabva da ponese nakazanie.
Every criminal must bear punishment.

Всеки е невинен до доказване на вината.
Vseki e nevinen do dokazvane na vinata.
Everyone is innocent until proven guilty.

Присъдата на обвиняемия беше доживотен затвор.
Prisadata na obvinyaemiya beshe dozhivoten zatvor.
The defendant was sentenced to life imprisonment.

Издадена бе окончателна присъда без право на помилване.
Izdadena be okonchatelna prisada bez pravo na pomilvane.
A final sentence was issued without the right to pardon.

Адвокатът не можа да намери доказателство за оправдаването на престъпника.
Advokatat ne mozha da nameri dokazatelstvo za opravdavaneto na prestapnika.
The lawyer could not find evidence for the acquittal of the criminal.

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Learn About Negation in Bulgarian

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Negation is a linguistic tool we use every day. From refusing proposals to answering questions in the negative, there are so many ways we use the word “no” in our daily conversations and social engagements. After all, we can’t possibly agree on everything all the time! 

Learning about negation in Bulgarian grammar is a key element in mastering the language, and we recommend that you study this early on. 

Here are some reasons why it’s good to learn how to say no in Bulgarian:

  • You’ll be able to express an opposite opinion.
  • You can react negatively when someone speaks untruthfully.
  • You can disagree with any offensive declaration. 
  • You can express to others your inability to do something.
  • You can state that something never happened.

BulgarianPod101 has prepared this Bulgarian negation overview to guide you through this complex topic. You’ll learn how to form negative sentences in Bulgarian, how to say no, how to answer questions in the negative, and more.

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Beginner Vocabulary in Bulgarian Table of Contents
  1. Negate a Statement
  2. Making Negative Sentences with the Verb “To Bе”
  3. Giving a Negative Response to a Question
  4. Other Negating Words and Phrases
  5. Double Negatives
  6. How BulgarianPod101 Can Help You Learn Bulgarian
  7. Answers to the Practical Exercises

1. Negate a Statement

Let’s start by learning how to negate a positive statement in Bulgarian. For your convenience, we’ve also included some practical exercises to help you get the hang of it! 

Here are the positive statements:

  • Аз съм американец. / Ние сме американци.
    (Az sam amerikanets. / Nie sme amerikantsi.)
    I am an American. / We are Americans.
  • Аз уча български, защото смятам да пътувам за България.
    (Az ucha balgarski, zashtoto smyatam da patuvam za Balgariya.)
    I study Bulgarian because I plan to travel to Bulgaria.
I Study Bulgarian because I Plan to Travel to Bulgaria.

To make these positive statements negative in the simple present tense, we have to add the negative particleне” in front of the verb. The negative versions of these sentences look like this:

  • Аз не съм американец. / Ние не сме американци.
    (Az sam amerikanets. / Nie sme amerikantsi.)
    I am not an American. / We are not Americans.
  • Аз не уча български, защото не смятам да пътувам за България.
    (Az ne ucha balgarski, zashtoto ne smyatam da patuvam za Balgariya.)
    I don’t study Bulgarian because I do not plan to travel to Bulgaria.

Learning Bulgarian vocabulary for nationalities is not an easy thing. To help you out, here’s a list of 35 nationalities and how they’re pronounced in Bulgarian.

Practical exercise: Making affirmative statements negative in the simple present tense

It seems simple, right? Just figure out where the verb is located and put the negative particle before it. Now, practice negation in Bulgarian yourself with the following sentences: 

  • Аз обичам да ходя на ресторант.
    (Az obicham da hodya na restorant.)
    I like going to restaurants.
  • Тя живее в къща.
    (Tya zhivee v kashta.)
    She lives in a house.
  • Те работят в тази фирма.
    (Te rabotyat v tazi firma.)
    They work for this company.

You can check your answers at the end of this article.

Negate a statement in the future tense

When the statement you would like to negate is in the future tense, a different negative particle is used instead of “не.” In this case, the negative particle “няма да” (nyama da), meaning “won’t,” should replace the Bulgarian future tense particle “ще” (shte), meaning “will.” 

Let’s make it more clear by providing an example. Locate the particle “ще” first.

  • Когато науча български, ще се върна в Америка.
    (Kogato naucha balgarski, shte se varna v Amerika.)
    When I learn Bulgarian, I will return to America.

Now let’s replace the particle “ще” with the negative particle “няма да.”

  • Когато науча български, няма да се върна в Америка.
    (Kogato naucha balgarski, nyama da se varna v Amerika.)
    When I learn Bulgarian, I will not return to America.

By the way, BulgarianPod101 can help you start using the future tense to make plans and appointments in this lesson.

Practical exercise: Negate a statement in the future tense

Now, it’s your turn to make a negative statement in the future tense. Try the following sentences:

  • Утре ще ходя на ресторант.
    (Utre shte hodya na restorant.)
    I’m going to a restaurant tomorrow.
  • Тя ще живее в тази къща.
    (Tya shte zhivee v tazi kashta.)
    She will live in this house.
  • Те ще работят в тази фирма.
    (Te shte rabotyat v tazi firma.)
    They will work for this company.

You can check your answers at the end of this article.

I'm Going to a Restaurant Tomorrow.

2. Making Negative Sentences with the Verb “To Bе”

When building Bulgarian negation sentences with the verb съм (sam), you need to follow the same principle as with the other verbs: The negative particle “не” should be placed in front of the verb съм

Let’s start with affirmative examples. We’ll provide two versions of each sentence (for masculine and feminine gender, respectively) in the first person singular:

masculinefeminine 
Аз съм българин. 
(Az sam balgarin.)
I am Bulgarian.
Аз съм българка. 
(Az sam balgarка.)
I am Bulgarian.
Аз съм тъжен.
(Az sam tazhen.)
I am sad.
Аз съм тъжна. 
(Az sam tazhnа.)
I am sad.
Ние сме млади.
(Nie sme mladi.)
We are young.

Now, let’s make these sentences negative. Note that, in contrast to the English language where the negative particle not is placed after the verb “to be,” the particle не comes before the verb “to be” in Bulgarian. 

masculinefeminine 
Аз не съм българин.
(Az ne sam balgarin.)
I am not Bulgarian.
Аз не съм българка.
(Az ne sam balgarка.)
I am not Bulgarian.
Аз не съм тъжен.
(Az ne sam tazhen.)
I am not sad.
Аз не съм тъжна.
(Az ne sam tazhnа.)
I am not sad.
Ние не сме млади.
(Nie ne sme mladi.)
We are not young.

We Are Not Young, but We Are Young at Heart.

Practical exercise: Making negative sentences with the verb “to bе”

Ready to practice this essential skill? Each of these sentences contains a conjugated form of the verb “to be.” Try to make them negative! 

  • Колата е бърза.
    (Kolata e barza.)
    The car is fast.
  • Времето е хубаво.
    (Vremeto e hubavo.)
    The weather is nice.
  • Хората са добри.
    (Horata sa dobri.)
    People are good.
  • Те са мълчаливи днес.
    (Te sa malchalivi dnes.)
    They are silent today.

You can check your answers at the end of this article.

3. Giving a Negative Response to a Question

It’s time to learn how to give negative answers to questions that others ask you. Here are three examples, each one for a different scenario: 

With a possessive pronoun

    – Този телефон твой ли е?
       (Tozi telefon tvoy li e?)
       Is this phone yours?
    – Не, не е мой.
       (Ne, ne e moy.)
       No, it’s not mine.

With the verb to be

    – Ти от Бразилия ли си?
       (Ti ot Braziliya li si?)
       Are you from Brazil?
    – Не, не съм от Бразилия.
       (Ne, ne sam ot Braziliya.)
       No, I’m not from Brazil.

With a common verb 

    – Ти обичаш ли ме?
       (Ti obichash li me?)
       Do you love me?
    – Не, не те обичам.
       (Ne, ne te obicham.)
       No, I don’t love you.
Do You Love Me?

Practical exercise: Giving a negative response to a question

Your next task is to answer the following questions negatively. 

  • Ти помагаш ли му?
    (Ti pomagash li mu?)
    Are you helping him?
  • Ти учиш ли?
    (Ti uchish li?)
    Do you study?
  • Ти знаеш ли това?
    (Ti znaesh li tova?)
    Do you know that?
  • Ти млад ли си?
    (Ti mlad li si?)
    Are you young?

A hint: Follow the last example (With a common verb) from above to answer the first three questions and the second example (With the verb to be) for the last one. You can check whether your answers are correct at the end of this article.

    One more task:

Alter the following question for the feminine gender and answer it negatively, too:

  • Ти млад ли си?
    (Ti mlad li si?)
    Are you young?

4. Other Negating Words and Phrases

In addition to Bulgarian negative particles, there are some other negating words that make sentences negative. It’s interesting to note that these words have to be used in combination with the negative particle “не” in order to build a grammatically correct negative sentence.

BulgarianEnglish
нищо (nishto) – should be used with “неnothing
никой (nikoy) – should be used with “неnobody 
никога (nikoga) – should be used with “неnever
не мога (ne mogaI cannot
не трябва (ne tryabva)should not / must not

Examples:

  • Нищо не ми трябва.
    (Nishto ne mi tryabva.)
    I don’t need anything.
  • Никой не идва.
    (Nikoy ne idva.)
    Nobody is coming.
  • Никога не закъснявам.
    (Nikoga ne zakasnyavam.)
    I’m never late.
  • Аз не мога да дойда на работа днес.
    (Az ne moga da doyda na rabota dnes.)
    I can’t come to work today.
  • Не трябва да работя много.
    (Ne tryabva da rabotya mnogo.)
    I don’t have to work hard.

Practical exercise: Negating words and phrases

Make the following sentences negative in Bulgarian by adding the negative words in parentheses to them. Hint: Don’t forget to add the negative particle не.

  • Разбирам. (add нищо)
    (Razbiram.)
    I understand.
  • Говоря с непознати. (add никога)
    (Govorya s nepoznati.)
    I’m talking to strangers.
  • Чува какво говоря. (add никой)
    (Chuva kakvo govorya.)
    He hears what I’m saying.

5. Double Negatives

Double Negatives

Double negatives are typical in the Bulgarian language. As we saw in the previous section, the negative pronouns (like никой) can only be used with the negative form of the verb.

  • Никой престъпник не остава ненаказан.
    (Nikoy prestapnik ne ostava nenakazan.)
    No criminal goes unpunished.

In the sentence above, the Bulgarian negative pronoun (никой) is equivalent to the English word “no.”

  • Нищо не виждам в тъмното.
    (Nishto ne vizhdam v tamnoto.)
    I don’t see anything in the dark.
  • Не приемам никакви предложения.
    (Ne priemam nikakvi predlozheniya.)
    I do not accept any suggestions.

6. How BulgarianPod101 Can Help You Learn Bulgarian

BulgarianPod101 has prepared this overview of Bulgarian negation to help you better understand how it works so you can start using it in your daily conversations with Bulgarians. We believe that this explanation and the exercises we provided can help you quickly overcome the language barrier and start speaking freely.

If you feel like you need some additional help for that, you can check out our MyTeacher service, which allows you to study and practice with your own personal Bulgarian tutor. He or she can help give you the confidence you need to start speaking Bulgarian on your own. 

Before you go: Did you find these practical exercises challenging? What exactly did you find most challenging about them? We would love to hear from you, so please share your thoughts in the comments below. 

And now, it’s time to check your answers!

7. Answers to the Practical Exercises


Answers to practical exercise: Making affirmative statements negative

  • Аз не обичам да ходя на ресторант.
    (Az ne obicham da hodya na restorant.)
    I don’t like going to restaurants.
  • Тя не живее в къща.
    (Tya ne zhivee v kashta.)
    She doesn’t live in a house.
  • Те не работят в тази фирма.
    (Te ne rabotyat v tazi firma.)
    They don’t work for this company.

Answers to practical exercise: Negate a statement in the future tense

  • Утре няма да ходя на ресторант.
    (Utre nyama da hodya na restorant.)
    I’m not going to a restaurant tomorrow.
  • Тя няма да живее в тази къща.
    (Tya nyama da zhivee v tazi kashta.)
    She will not live in this house.
  • Те няма да работят в тази фирма.
    (Te nyama da rabotyat v tazi firma.)
    They will not work for this company.

Answers to practical exercise: Making negative sentences with the verb “to bе”

  • Колата не е бърза.
    (Kolata ne e barza.)
    The car is not fast.
  • Времето не е хубаво.
    (Vremeto ne e hubavo.)
    The weather is not nice.
  • Хората не са добри.
    (Horata ne sa dobri.)
    People are not good.
  • Те не са мълчаливи днес.
    (Te ne sa malchalivi dnes.)
    They are not silent today.

Answers to practical exercise: Giving a negative response to a question

  • Ти помагаш ли му?
    (Ti pomagash li mu?)
    Are you helping him?
    – Не, не му помагам.
       (Ne, ne mu pomagam.)
       No, I’m not helping him.
  • Ти учиш ли?
    (Ti uchish li?)
    Do you study?
    – Не, не уча.
       (Ne, ne ucha.)
       No, I’m not studying.
  • Ти знаеш ли това?
    (Ti znaesh li tova?)
    Do you know that?
    – Не, не зная това.
       (Ne, ne znaya tova.)
       No, I don’t know that.
  • Ти млад ли си?
    (Ti mlad li si?)
    Are you young?
    – Не, не съм млад.
       (Ne, ne sam mlad.)
       No, I’m not young.

    One more task:

masculinefeminine 
Ти млад ли си?
(Ti mlad li si?)
Are you young?
Ти млада ли си?
(Ti mladа li si?)
Are you young?
Не, не съм млад.
(Ne, ne sam mlad.)
No, I’m not young.
Не, не съм млада.
(Ne, ne sam mlada.)
No, I’m not young.

Answers to practical exercise: Negating words and phrases

  • Нищо не разбирам.
    (Nishto ne razbiram.)
    I do not understand anything.
  • Никога не говоря с непознати.
    (Nikoga ne govorya s nepoznati.)
    I never talk to strangers.
  • Никой не чува какво говоря.
    (Nikoy ne chuva kakvo govorya.)
    Nobody hears what I’m saying.
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Bulgarian Tenses Overview: Make the Hardest Part Easier

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Even if you have a solid vocabulary base, your communication is going to be quite limited unless you know how to use tenses. While they may seem intimidating, studying the Bulgarian tenses will open up a whole new world to you and fill your life with so many different possibilities. 

Just imagine: Being able to talk about the present, past, and future will allow you to tell your Bulgarian friend what you’re up to at the moment, what happened yesterday, or what your plans are for the future. 

In this detailed guide, BulgarianPod101 will cover all nine verb tenses in Bulgarian grammar and provide you with examples of how to use them. We know that tenses are probably the hardest part of learning a foreign language, so we’ve tried to make our guide as simple and useful as possible. 

Let’s get started.

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Beginner Vocabulary in Bulgarian Table of Contents
  1. Bulgarian Language Specifics
  2. Present Tense
  3. Past Tenses
  4. Future Tenses
  5. How BulgarianPod101 Can Help You Learn Bulgarian Tenses

1. Bulgarian Language Specifics

Before we delve into verb tenses in the Bulgarian language, let’s take a look at three of the essential specifics that distinguish Bulgarian from most other languages.

No infinitive form

Instead of infinitive verb forms like those found in English, Russian, and many other languages, the Bulgarian language has a basic verb form that is first person singular, present tense. This means that when you look for specific verbs in the dictionary, you’ll find their forms for first person:

  • говоря (govorya) – to talk / I talk
  • чета (cheta) – to read / I read
  • питам (pitam) – to ask / I ask
  • отговарям (otgovariam) – to answer / I answer
  • мисля (mislya) – to think / I think

Bulgarian verb conjugations

There are three verb conjugations in Bulgarian, categorized based on the stem form in third person singular, present tense. 

ConjugationStem vowelStem form (3rd pers., sing., present tense)Base form (1st pers., sing., present tense)
1st четечета
2ndговори, мислиговоря, мисля
3rd-а, -япита, отговаряпитам, отговарям

He Reads an Interesting Book

Examples:

1st Conjugation

  • Той чете интересна книга, а аз чета вестник.
    Toy chete interesna kniga, a az cheta vestnik.
    He reads an interesting book and I read a newspaper.

3rd Conjugation

  • Аз питам, а той отговаря.
    As pitam, a toy otgovarya.
    I ask, and he answers.

    Practical Exercise No. 1 – Conjugations

Determine the conjugation of the following words, placed in third person singular, present tense:

разбира (razbira), understands – Conjugation No. ____
знае (znae), knows – Conjugation No. ____
учи (uchi), studies – Conjugation No. ____
играе (razbira), plays – Conjugation No. ____
вярва (vyarva), believes – Conjugation No. ____
работи (raboti), works – Conjugation No. ____
мечтае (mechtae), dreams – Conjugation No. ____


    Practical Exercise No. 2 – Conjugations

Using the table from Bulgarian Verb Conjugations, try to translate the following sentence into Bulgarian:

                   She doesn’t speak, because she thinks a lot.

Bulgarian:

Bulgarian auxiliary verbs

The Bulgarian language features two auxiliary verbs: съм (sam) and ща (shta). Let’s take a closer look at each of them.

  • съм (sam) – to be

    This verb is widely used in constructing complex verb forms. съм and its derivatives (for the past and future tenses) play an important role in forming different tenses.

  • ща (shta) – to want

    This verb is used only for future tense forms. To form verbs in the future tense and the future perfect tense, its derivative ще (shtе), or “will,” should be used. Over time, this word has lost its meaning of “want to” and is now considered to be a particle meaning “will.”

    To form the other future tenses (Future in the Past & Future Perfect in the Past), which will be discussed below in detail, we need to use the aorist form of ща, which is щял (shtyal), meaning “would.”

Examples: 

    ➢ Аз съм учител.
        Az sam uchitel.
        I am a teacher. – Present Tense

    ➢ Като порасна, ще съм смел като татко.
        Kato porasna, shte sam smel kato tatko.
        When I grow up, I will be as brave as my daddy. – Future Tense

    ➢ Вчера бях у дома.
        Vchera byah u doma.
        Yesterday, I was at home. – Past Tense

I Am a Teacher.
    → BulgarianPod101 covers more important points related to Bulgarian grammar on our website!

2. Present Tense

It’s important to note that there is only one present tense in Bulgarian, which makes things easier. However, don’t forget that there are three conjugations in the Bulgarian language, so you’ll have to learn them in order to use the correct forms in the present tense. 

Here’s a comparison table with endings for all three Bulgarian present tense conjugations.

Personal pronouns1st Conjugation (the verb read)2nd Conjugation(the verb speak)3rd Conjugation(the verb ask)
азчета
(cheta)
говоря
(govorya)
питам
(pitam)
тичетеш
(chetesh)
говориш
(govorish)
питаш
(pitash)
той/тя/точете
(chete)
говори
(govori)
пита
(pita)
ние четем
(chetem)
говорим
(govorim)
питаме
(pitame)
виечетете
(chetete)
говорите
(govorite)
питате
(pitate)
течетат
(chetat)
говорят
(govoryat)
питат
(pitat)

    Practical Exercise No. 3 – Present Tense

Fill in all the forms of the following verbs in the present tense, based on their conjugation:

Personal pronounsразбирамзнаяучамечтаявярвамиграя
аз
ти
той/тя/то
ние 
вие
те

Helpful Tip: Refer to Practical Exercise No. 1 for the correct conjugations. Then, use the endings of the correct conjugation to make the missing forms. You can find the correct answers at the end of this guide.  

Uses of the Bulgarian Present Tense

Here are a few things to keep in mind when studying the Bulgarian present tense and its uses.

1. The present tense in Bulgarian is equivalent to the English present simple tense

Examples:

    ➢ Аз говоря български език.
        Az govorya balgarski ezik.
        I speak the Bulgarian language.

    ➢ Обичам да чета книги.
        Obicham da cheta knigi.
        I love reading books.

    ➢ Често си мисля за теб!
        Chesto si mislya za teb!
        I often think about you!

2. The Bulgarian present tense, just like the English present simple tense, can be used to express habitual activities.

Examples:

    ➢ Всеки ден уча български език.
        Vseki den ucha balgarski ezik.
        I study Bulgarian every day.

    Чета по една българска книга всяка седмица.
        Cheta po edna balgarska kniga vsyaka sedmitsa.
        I read one Bulgarian book every week.

3. The Bulgarian present tense can also express the English present continuous tense.

Examples:

    ➢ Не ме безпокой, защото в момента чета интересна книга.
        Ne me bezpokoy, zashtoto v momenta cheta interesna kniga.
        Don’t bother me, because I’m reading an interesting book right now.

    ➢ Не ме прекъсвай, докато говоря с други хора.
        Ne me prekasvay, dokato govorya s drugi hora.
        Don’t interrupt me while I’m talking to other people.

4. Just like the English present continuous tense, the Bulgarian present tense can also be used to tell others about future activities we have planned.

Examples:

    ➢ Вечерта пътувам за София.
        Vecherta patuvam za Sofiya.
        I am traveling to Sofia tonight.

    ➢ Утре пристигам в Бургас.
        Utre pristigam v Burgas.
        I am arriving in Burgas tomorrow.

5. The Bulgarian present tense can act as an equivalent to the English present perfect continuous tense to express habitual activities, when the specific activities began in the past and continue to the present moment.

Examples:

    ➢ От три години уча този език.
        Ot tri godini ucha tozi ezik.
        I have been studying this language for three years.

    ➢ От месец чета тази книга, но още не съм я завършил.
        Ot mesets cheta tazi kniga, no oshte ne sam ya zavarshil.
        I have been reading this book for a month, but I have not finished it yet.

6. The Bulgarian present tense can be used to express historical events. In this case, it is equivalent to the past simple tense in English.

    ➢ Кирил и Методий създават славянската азбука през IX век.
        Kiril i Metodiy sazdavat slavyanskata azbuka prez IX vek.
        In the IX century, Cyril and Methodius created the Slavic alphabet.

    ➢ След смъртта на цар Симеон Велики, на престола се качва синът му Петър.
        Sled smartta na tsar Simeon Veliki, na prestola se kachva sinat mu Petar.
        After the death of King Simeon the Great, his son Peter ascended the throne.

Learn Bulgarian Tenses to Sit on the Throne of Knowledge!

3. Past Tenses

There are four Bulgarian past tenses: 

1. the past simple tense (also called aorist)
2. the past continuous tense
3. минало неопределено време (minalo neopredeleno vreme), equivalent to the present perfect tense
4. минало предварително време (minalo predvaritelno vreme), equivalent to the past perfect tense

Past Simple Tense (Aorist)

Aorist describes actions that happened at a definite moment in the past, and it corresponds to the English past simple tense. It’s formed with the stem vowel , , , or (if it follows the consonant ж, ч, or ш). The specific verb endings for this tense are given in the table below:

Personal pronounsEndings for past simple tense
аз– х
ти
той/тя/то
ние -хме
вие-хте
те-ха

There’s no ending in the second or third person singular, which means that these forms will end in the stem vowel. 

Let’s make the past form of the verbs we already studied above:

  • говоря (govorya) – to talk / I talk
  • чета (cheta) – to read / I read
  • питам (pitam) – to ask / I ask
  • отговарям (otgovariam) – to answer / I answer
  • мисля (mislya) – to think / I think

Personal pronounsVerb with stem vowel * Verb with stem vowel Verb with stem vowel
азговорихчетохпитах
тиговоричетепита
той/тя/тоговоричетепита
ние говорихмечетохмепитахме
виеговорихтечетохтепитахте
теговорихачетохапитаха

* Note that the word чета (четох) belongs to a special class of 23 verbs. Their stems end in д, т, з, с, or к and their stem vowel could be or -e in the second and third persons singular. 

Examples:

    ➢ Вчера цял ден четох интересна книга.
        Vchera tsyal den chetoh interesna kniga.
        Yesterday, I read an interesting book all day.

    ➢ Те ни питаха какво да ни купят за подарък.
        Te ni pitaha kakvo da ni kupyat za podarak.
        They asked us what to buy us as a gift.

    ★ Practical Exercise No. 4 – Past Simple Tense

Fill in all the forms of the following verbs in the past simple tense, based on their stem vowel:

Personal pronounsVerb with stem vowel Verb with stem vowel Verb with stem vowel Verb with stem vowel
азмислихучихмечтахиграх
ти
той/тя/то
ние 
вие
те

Bonus exercise:

Try to form the past simple tense of the following verb, knowing that its stem vowel is :

  •  успях (uspyah) – I succeeded
Personal pronounsVerb with stem vowel
азуспях
ти
той/тя/то
ние 
вие
те
    ➢ Here’s an intriguing lesson from BulgarianPod101 about the past simple tense—check it out if you’d like to further explore this topic!

Past Imperfect Tense

The past imperfect tense describes a specific action, which was either in progress or incomplete at a definite moment in the past. It can be recognized when the following time phrases are used in the sentence:

  • тогава (togava) – then
  • по това време (po tova vreme) – at that time
  • в този момент (v tozi moment) – in this moment

    По това време учениците седяха на масата и учеха.
        Po tova vreme uchenitsite sedyaha na masata i ucheha.
        At that time, the students were sitting at the table and studying.

Another usage of this tense is to express that the action is repeated in the past.

    ➢ Всеки вторник ходех в библиотеката и четях.
        Vseki vtornik hodeh v bibliotekata i chetyah.
        Every Tuesday, I was going to the library and reading.

Here are the endings for the past continuous tense:

Personal pronounsEndings for past continuous tense
аз
ти-ше
той/тя/то-ше
ние -хме
вие-хте
те-ха

If you recall the endings for the past simple tense, you’ll notice that the only change comes in the second and third persons singular, where the ending -ше is added after the stem vowel

There are three stem vowels (, , ) that can be used to form the past continuous tense. Let’s see how they’re formed using the verbs we saw above.

  • говоря (govorya) – to talk / I talk
  • чета (cheta) – to read / I read
  • питам (pitam) – to ask / I ask
  • отговарям (otgovariam) – to answer / I answer
  • мисля (mislya) – to think / I think

Personal pronounsVerb with stem vowel Verb with stem vowel Verb with stem vowel
азпитахчетяхмислeх
типиташечетешемислеше
той/тя/топиташечетешемислеше
ние питахмечетяхмемислeхме
виепитахтечетяхтемислeхте
тепитахачетяхамислeха

Examples:

    ➢ Дълго време четях тази голяма книга.
        Dalgo vreme chetyah tazi golyama kniga.
        I was reading this big book for a long time.

    ➢ За какво си мислеше, когато ти се обадих? 
        Za kakvo si misleshe, kogato ti se obadih?
        What were you thinking about when I called you?
What Were You Thinking about When I Called You?

    ★ Practical Exercise No. 5 – Past Continuous Tense

Fill in all the forms of the following verbs in the past continuous tense, based on their stem vowel:

Personal pronounsVerb with stem vowel Verb with stem vowel Verb with stem vowel
азотговаряхучехлежах
ти*
той/тя/то*
ние 
вие
те

We added one new verb: 

  • лежах (lezhah) – I was lying

* Note: The stem vowel for this verb is changed to -e in the second and third persons singular.

Минало неопределено време (minalo neopredeleno vreme) – Present Perfect Tense

This tense is used to describe an action that has taken place in the past, but its result continues in the present. Just like the English present perfect tense, the Bulgarian минало неопределено време tense uses a compound form of the verb съм (to be) in the present tense and the past active participle of the completed form. 

Examples:

    ➢ Гостите са дошли у нас.
        Gostite sa doshli u nas.
        The guests have come to us.

        [meaning that they are still in our house]

    ➢ Някой е взел учебника ми.
        Nyakoy e vzel uchebnika mi.
        Somebody has taken my textbook.

        [meaning that the textbook is still missing]

Let’s see in the table how it’s formed:

Personal pronounsEndings for present perfect tense (Минало неопределено време)
азсъм   -л (-а, -о)*
тиси    -л (-а, -о)*
той
тя
то
е      -л
е      -ла
е      -ло
ние сме   -ли 
виесте   -ли 
теса    -ли 

* For the first and second persons, the ending will depend on the gender:

  •  Without vowel – for masculine gender
  • – for feminine gender 
  • – for neuter gender

Let’s see how to form a few of our verbs into минало неопределено време. You can try the rest of them yourself in the Practical Exercise below.

  • говоря (govorya) – to talk / I talk
  • чета (cheta) – to read / I read
  • питам (pitam) – to ask / I ask
  • отговарям (otgovariam) – to answer / I answer
  • мисля (mislya) – to think / I think

Personal pronounsчетаговоря
азсъм чел/а/осъм говорил/а/о
тиси чел/а/оси говорил/а/о
той
тя
то
е     чел 
е     
чела 
е     
чело
е     говорил 
е     
говорила 
е     
говорило
ние сме челисме говорили
виесте челисте говорили
теса челиса говорили

    ★ Practical Exercise No. 6 – Present Perfect Tense (минало неопределено време)

Fill in all the forms of the following verbs in the present perfect tense (минало неопределено време), based on their stem vowel:

Personal pronounsпитамотговаряммисля
азсъм питал/а/осъм отговорил/а/осъм мислил/а/о
ти
тойтято
ние 
вие
те

Минало предварително време (minalo predvaritelno vreme) – Past Perfect Tense

This tense is formed using the forms of the past continuous tense of the verb съм (to be) and the past active participle of the completed form. So the verb forms remain the same as those described above for the Bulgarian минало неопределено време. The only change is in the verb съм, which is used in its past continuous tense: бях (byah).

It’s used to show that an action was completed before another action or moment in the past, which is mentioned or implied. The result of the action affects that past moment.

Examples:

    ➢ Когато влязох, тя вече беше чела писмото.
        Kogato vlyazoh, tya veche beshe chela pismoto.
        When I entered, she had already read the letter.

    ➢ Преди да дойда, той вече беше купил билети за киното.
        Predi da doyda, toy veche beshe kupil bileti za kinoto.
        Before I came, he had already bought tickets for the movie.

When I Entered, She Had Already Read the Letter.

Let’s see how it’s formed:

Personal pronounsEndings for past perfect tense (Минало предварително време)
азбях  -л (-а, -о)*
тибеше   -л (-а, -о)*
той
тя
то
беше      -л   
беше      -ла   
беше      -ло
ние бяхме  -ли 
виебяхте  -ли 
тебяха   -ли 

* For the first and second persons, the ending will depend on the gender:

  •  Without vowel – for masculine gender
  • – for feminine gender 
  • for neuter gender

Let’s see how to form a few of our verbs into минало предварително време. You can try the rest of them yourself in the Practical Exercise below.

  • говоря (govorya) – to talk / I talk
  • чета (cheta) – to read / I read
  • питам (pitam) – to ask / I ask
  • отговарям (otgovariam) – to answer / I answer
  • мисля (mislya) – to think / I think

Personal pronounsчетаговоря
азбях чел/а/обях говорил/а/о
тибеше чел/а/обеше говорил/а/о
той
тя
то
беше     чел 
беше     
чела 
беше     чело
беше     говорил 
беше     
говорила 
беше     
говорило
ние бяхме челибяхме говорили
виебяхте челибяхте говорили
тебяха челибяха говорили

    ★ Practical Exercise No. 7 – Past Perfect Tense (минало предварително време)

Fill in all the forms of the following verbs in the past perfect tense (минало предварително време), based on their stem vowel:

Personal pronounsпитамотговаряммисля
азбях питал/а/обях отговорил/а/обях мислил/а/о
ти
той
тя
то
ние 
вие
те

4. Future Tenses

There are four Bulgarian future tenses: 

  • Future Tense
  • Future Perfect Tense
  • Future in the Past Tense
  • бъдеще предварително време в миналото (badeshte predvaritelno vreme v minaloto) – Future Preliminary Tense in the Past

That last one can be described as past future perfect or future perfect in the past.

Future Tense

The Bulgarian future tense is very easy to form. Just take the present simple tense of the verb and place the particle ще (shte), meaning “will,” before the verb form.

Examples:

    ➢ Утре ще отида на кино.
        Utre shte otida na kino.
        Tomorrow, I will go to the cinema.

    ➢ Вечерта ще уча български език.
        Vecherta shte ucha balgarski ezik.
        In the evening, I will study the Bulgarian language.

When negating a verb in the future tense, the impersonal verb няма and the particle да are placed before the present tense verb.

Examples:

    ➢ Аз няма да дойда.
        Az nyama da doyda.
        I will not come.

    ➢ Те няма да четат от книгата днес.
        Te nyama da chetat ot knigata dnes.
        They will not read from the book today.

The Bulgarian future tense corresponds to both the future and future progressive tenses in English.

Let’s see how to form a few of our verbs in the future tense. You can try the rest of them for yourself in the Practical Exercise below.

  • говоря (govorya) – to talk / I talk
  • чета (cheta) – to read / I read
  • питам (pitam) – to ask / I ask
  • отговарям (otgovariam) – to answer / I answer
  • мисля (mislya) – to think / I think

Personal pronouns1st  Conjugation2nd Conjugation3rd Conjugation
азще четаще говоряще питам
тище четешще говоришще питаш
той/тя/тоще четеще говорище пита
ние ще четемще говоримще питаме
виеще чететеще говоритеще питате
теще четатще говорятще питат

    ★ Practical Exercise No. 8 – Future Tense

If you’ve already filled this table for the present tense exercise, it will be very easy for you to form the future tense:

Personal pronounsразбирамзнаяучамечтаявярвамиграя
аз
ти
той/тя/то
ние 
вие
те

Future Perfect Tense

In Bulgarian, the future perfect tense is called бъдеще предварително време (badeshte predvaritelno vreme). It’s formed using the particle for future tense (ще), the verb съм (to be), and the past active completed participle of the main verb. 

It expresses a future action, which will have been completed by a given future moment. The result of the action affects that future moment. This tense corresponds to the English future perfect tense. 

Examples:

    ➢ До утре вечер ще съм прочел цялата книга.
        Do utre vecher shte sam prochel tsyalata kniga.
        I will have read the whole book by tomorrow night.

    ➢ До тогава хората ще са променили природата.
        Do togava horata shte sa promenili prirodata.
        Until then, people will have changed nature.

Until Then, People Will Have Changed Nature.

It’s easy to form this tense, assuming you’ve already learned how to form минало предварително време. The only difference is that we add the particle ще to the forms.

Personal pronounsчетаговоря
азще съм чел/а/още съм говорил/а/о
тище си чел/а/още си говорил/а/о
той
тя
то
ще е     чел
ще е     чела
ще е     чело
ще е     говорил 
ще е     говорила 
ще е     говорило
ние ще сме челище сме говорили
виеще сте челище сте говорили
теще са челище са говорили

    ★ Practical Exercise No. 9 – Future Perfect Tense (бъдеще предварително време)

Fill in all the forms of the following verbs in the future perfect tense (бъдеще предварително време), based on their stem vowel:

Personal pronounsпитамотговаряммисля
азще съм питал/а/още съм отговорил/а/още съм мислил/а/о
ти
тойтято
ние 
вие
те

Future in the Past Tense

Бъдеще време в миналото (Badeshte vreme v minaloto) is expressed using compound forms. It’s formed using the auxiliary verb ща in the past continuous tense (щях), the particle да, and the main verb in the present simple tense. 

Examples:

    Щях да чета.
        Shtyah da cheta.
        I would (was going to) read.

    Щях да пея.
        Shtyah da peya.
        I would (was going to) sing.

The negative form is expressed using нямаше (nyamashe), which is not conjugated for the person or number, plus the particle да and the main verb in the present simple tense. 

Examples:

    Нямаше да чета.
        Niamashe da cheta.
        I would not (was not going to) read.

    Нямаше да пея.
        Niamashe da peya.
        I would not (was not going to) sing.

This tense expresses an action in the past, which has taken place after another moment in the past. It corresponds to the English future in the past tense. 

Examples:

    ➢ Те щяха да прекарат лятото на това място.
        Te shtyaha da prekarat lyatoto na tova myastо.
        They were going to spend the summer in this place.

    ➢ Влакът щеше да тръгне след 5 минути.
        Vlakat shteshe da tragne sled 5 minuti.
        The train was going to leave in 5 minutes.

Let’s see how to form a few of our verbs in the future in the past tense. You can try the rest of them for yourself in the Practical Exercise below.

  • говоря (govorya) – to talk / I talk
  • чета (cheta) – to read / I read
  • питам (pitam) – to ask / I ask
  • отговарям (otgovariam) – to answer / I answer
  • мисля (mislya) – to think / I think

Personal pronouns1st  Conjugation2nd Conjugation3rd Conjugation
азщях да четащях да говорящях да питам
тищеше да четешщеше да говоришщеше да питаш
той/тя/тощеше да четещеше да говорищеше да пита
ние щяхме да четемщяхме да говоримщяхме да питаме
виещяхте да чететещяхте да говоритещяхте да питате
тещяха да четатщяха да говорятщяха да питат
    ★ Practical Exercise No. 10 – Future in the Past Tense

If you’ve already filled in this table for the present tense, use the table above to form the future in the past tense:

Personal pronounsразбирамзнаявярвамиграя
аз
ти
той/тя/то
ние 
вие
те

Past Future Perfect

Бъдеще предварително време в миналото (badeshte predvaritelno vreme v minaloto), or future preliminary tense in the past, can be described as “past future perfect” or “future perfect in the past.” This is the most complex compound tense.

It represents an action in its relation to a past moment the same way that the simple future tense presents it in relation to the moment of speaking. In other words, these forms mean that the action has passed in relation to a certain past moment, which in turn is forthcoming (future) for the past moment in question.

Let’s give an example:

    ➢ Ако не беше закъснял толкова, досега щяхме да сме излезли.
        Ako ne beshe zakasnyal tolkova, dosega shtyahme da sme izlezli.
        If he hadn’t been so late, we would have been out by now.

It’s formed using the auxiliary verb ща in the past continuous tense (щях), the particle да, the verb съм in the present tense, and the main verb in the present simple tense. This tense is rarely used because of its complex compound form, but to make this guide complete, we’ll show you how to form it just in case:

Personal pronounsчетаговоря
азщях да съм чел/а/ощях да съм говорил/а/о
тищеше да си чел/а/ощеше да си говорил/а/о
той
тя
то
щеше да е     чел
щеше да е     чела
щеше да е     чело
щеше да е     говорил 
щеше да е     говорила 
щеше да е     говорило
ние щяхме да сме челищяхме да сме говорили
виещяхте да сте челищяхте да сте говорили
тещяха да са челищяха да са говорили

    ★ Practical Exercise No. 11 – Past Future Perfect Tense

Try to create the forms of the following verbs in the past future perfect tense:

Personal pronounsпитамотговаряммисля
азщях да съм питал/а/ощях да съм отговорил/а/ощях да съм мислил/а/о
ти
тойтято
ние 
вие
те

5. How BulgarianPod101 Can Help You Learn Bulgarian Tenses

We hope you found our overview of Bulgarian verb tenses useful and practical for your study needs. At BulgarianPod101, we always strive to help our students learn Bulgarian in the fastest, easiest, and most effective way possible. 

We provide our students with plenty of lessons in both audio and video formats, in addition to our themed vocabulary lists, Bulgarian-English dictionary, and other free resources. But if you feel like you need a personal coach who can explain the Bulgarian tenses to you in greater detail and practice them with you, consider creating a Premium PLUS account to utilize our MyTeacher service. This service gives you your own personal tutor, who can help you learn and practice at your own pace! 

Before you go: Did you find the practical exercises throughout this article easy, or were they a bit difficult? Remember that you can find the answers for each exercise below. 

Happy learning!

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How Long Does it Take to Learn Bulgarian?

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The Bulgarian language is not an easy one for English speakers to learn. Being part of the Slavic language family, it differs quite a bit from the Germanic and Romance languages. Not only do learners have to get used to the Cyrillic alphabet, but they must also learn all the noun and adjective endings for different genders, the verb conjugations for different tenses, and so on. 

Feeling intimidated already? 

Don’t worry! BulgarianPod101 is here to encourage you. 

Although it might take some time, learning Bulgarian is possible. In this article, we’ll teach you how to learn Bulgarian faster and more effectively for the best results. 

There are three things you’ll need if you want to master the language: 

  • Motivation. In order to succeed, you need to maintain a high level of motivation during the entire learning process. One way you can do this is to stick to a schedule. Of course, in order to make a good plan, you’ll need to know how long it would take to learn Bulgarian to reach a beginner, intermediate, or advanced level. Don’t worry: Our guide will give you practical information regarding what kind of time commitment you’re looking at.
  • Persistence. You’ll come across some difficult topics and subjects throughout the course of your studies, but it’s important to continue your learning in order to advance. Each challenge you overcome will make you a more successful language learner.
  • Achievement. When you see your first marks of progress, you’ll be motivated to continue your studies. The more achievements you see, the more motivated you’ll be to learn the Bulgarian language in full.
Your Progress Depends on Your Motivation, Persistence, and Achievements!
Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Beginner Vocabulary in Bulgarian Table of Contents
  1. 3 Factors That Play a Huge Role in Bulgarian Language Learning
  2. Comparison Between Bulgarian and Other Languages
  3. How Long Does it Take to Achieve aBeginner Level?
  4. How Long Does it Take to Achieve an Intermediate Level?
  5. How Long Does it Take to Achieve an Advanced Level?
  6. How BulgarianPod101 Can Help You Learn the Bulgarian Language

3 Factors That Play a Huge Role in Bulgarian Language Learning

There are three main factors that determine how long it takes to learn Bulgarian:

  • Attitude. Having a positive attitude toward learning will make the process much easier and more enjoyable for you. Try to be as dedicated as possible, and view this as an opportunity to broaden your horizons. 
  • Time. The more time you study and practice the language, the less time it will take to get used to it.
  • Attentiveness. Some people have a talent for learning foreign languages quickly. If you’re among them, consider yourself lucky! The learning process will require less effort from you compared to other learners. But regardless of your natural inclinations toward language learning, you should always strive to be attentive in your studies!
Attitude, Time, Attentiveness

Comparison Between Bulgarian and Other Languages

The time it will take you to learn Bulgarian depends, to some extent, on your first language. If you’re a native English speaker, then you might find the Bulgarian language more difficult to learn than other languages (like French, Spanish, or Italian). 

One of the reasons for this is the existence of a third gender (neuter) in Bulgarian, compared to the two genders (masculine and feminine) used in the Romance languages mentioned above. This means that Bulgarian learners have to learn more noun and adjective forms, as well as how to identify the three different genders. 

In addition, Bulgarian belongs to the group of Slavic languages, which are more challenging to learn compared to the other European languages. There are many irregular forms of verbs, noun cases, exceptions to the rules, etc. that make studying more difficult.

However, learning the Bulgarian language is not Mission Impossible as long as you dedicate your time and efforts to achieving this goal. Below, we’ll discuss how long it takes to master each of the Bulgarian language levels based on research by the Foreign Service Institute (FSI).

How the Foreign Service Institute Ranks Bulgarian

The FSI has divided foreign languages into four categories. Category I languages are the most similar to English (and thus easier to learn), while Category IV languages are the least similar (and most difficult to learn). 

Category I languages include Spanish, French, and Italian, for instance. These take an English speaker roughly 24 weeks (600 hours) of intensive study to reach speaking and reading proficiency. 

On the other end of the scale are Category IV languages, which include Arabic, Korean, and Japanese, for example. These languages take about 88 weeks (2200 hours) to fully master. 

So where exactly does Bulgarian fall? 

Category 1 Languages

The FSI classifies Bulgarian as a Category III language. Other languages in this category include Czech, Polish, Turkish, and Greek. These languages take about 44 weeks (1100 hours) of study to master. 

So if you would like to learn Bulgarian, you may need almost a full year of studying to gain fluency in speaking, reading, and writing, and to communicate freely with Bulgarians. Although this might seem like a long time, you can succeed if you’re persistent in your efforts and accumulate knowledge slowly but surely. 

That said, you can start speaking Bulgarian way sooner! If you follow the lessons prepared by BulgarianPod101, you’ll be able to start communicating with native speakers within a few weeks. Don’t you think it’ll be worth the effort? 

Additional Note: Keep in mind that Bulgarian learners who already know Russian or another Slavic language will have a much easier time picking up the language. This is because Bulgarian and other Slavic languages have many things in common.

How Long Does it Take to Achieve a Beginner Level?

Start to Communicate at the Beginner Level

What language skills are developed at the beginner level?

The beginner level encompasses levels A1 and A2

It involves comprehension of everyday expressions and simple conversations. For example, you’ll be able to greet someone, introduce yourself, and ask questions to maintain a conversation at a simple level, if your interlocutor speaks slowly enough. You’ll also be able to express your needs to others. 

How do you know whether you’re at the A1 or A2 level? If any of these things apply to you, you’re probably still at the A1 level: 

  • The Bulgarian language is completely new to you
  • You may have lived for a short time in Bulgaria, but you know only a few words and phrases
  • You may have started to study this language on your own, but without sufficient practice

How long does it take to become a beginner-level Bulgarian speaker?

It usually takes 2 months (50 hours) to master these basic Bulgarian language skills.

How can you reach this level faster?

If you would like to accelerate your progress, you can watch YouTube channels that teach the Bulgarian language to beginners. A good place to start is Learn Bulgarian with BulgarianPod101.com, where you can find hundreds of free lessons to help you advance much more quickly.

Using flashcards to remember new words is also very useful at this level of language study. Wondering how to learn Bulgarian faster using mobile flashcards? You can learn more about this method on our website!

Absolute Beginner Pathways for Bulgarian Learners

Here are some tips on how to learn Bulgarian online using BulgarianPod101.com! 

  • Start with the Bulgarian alphabet. 

    The Bulgarian alphabet is the foundation upon which you’ll build the rest of your language skills. Do not skip or postpone this step! We recommend starting with our free alphabet guide for absolute beginners, which will help you quickly become familiar with the Bulgarian alphabet. It might take you up to a week to feel completely comfortable with it, but it’s well worth the effort.
  • Go through some well-structured audio lessons.

    Becoming comfortable with audio material right from the start will really help speed up your progress. You can check out our 3-Minute Bulgarian series, which consists of 25 three-minute lessons suitable for beginners. You’ll get acquainted with topics such as self-introductions, greetings, manners, asking questions, making apologies, and much more. It might take you a couple of weeks to get through the series, depending on how many lessons you do each day.
  • Study longer, more complicated beginner lessons. 

    Next, you might want to go through our Absolute Beginner pathway. It features 25 lessons (about 10 minutes each) that will help you better assimilate the information from the previous course and learn new vocabulary/skills. By the end of this series, you’ll be able to express your thoughts, needs, and questions more effectively. It might take 2-3 weeks of study and practice to feel confident speaking with your Bulgarian interlocutors.

Bonus: How much Bulgarian can you learn in 60 minutes? To find out, try out our 60-minute course Lessons for Your Flight to Bulgaria! If you’re an A2-level learner, you’ll find this easy to complete—but it’s still a great way to reinforce your vocabulary knowledge. 

How much time will it take to reach beginner-level Bulgarian with BulgarianPod101.com?

Mastering the Bulgarian AlphabetUp to 1 week
3-Minute Bulgarian SeriesUp to 2 weeks
Absolute Beginner PathwayUp to 3 weeks

It takes a maximum of 6 weeks to reach the beginner Bulgarian level with our platform. Not that bad, right?

  • We’ve also prepared a bunch of interesting 1-minute animated series videos that are well-suited for absolute beginners.

How Long Does it Take to Achieve an Intermediate Level?

What language skills are developed at the intermediate level?

The intermediate level (B1 and B2), can be summed up in just one word: communication

At this stage, you have the ability to communicate about broad topics that aren’t too complicated. These topics usually involve hobbies, weather, work, education, details about locations, holidays, etc. You’ll also be able to describe experiences, events, ideas, projects, likes, and dislikes; you could lead conversations with local Bulgarians more freely. 

At the B2 level, you’ll have additional fluency when communicating on a wider range of contexts.

Do any of the following points apply to you? Then it means you’re ready to start studying at the intermediate level. 

  • You have already completed the A2 level.
  • You’re able to lead basic conversations.
  • You require some extra practice in both spoken and written Bulgarian.
  • You would like to get prepared for an upcoming Bulgarian language exam.

How long does it take to become an intermediate-level Bulgarian speaker?

It usually takes 4 months (80-90 hours) to master these intermediate Bulgarian-language skills. This timeframe applies to intensive learners who study every day for about 4 hours. For those who study every other day, it may take 8 or more months to achieve this stage.

Start to Communicate More Freely at the Intermediate Level

How can you reach this level faster?

If this sounds like a long time to you, here are some tricks and tips on how to learn Bulgarian quickly at this stage:

Also make sure to check out our list of 5 Tips to Reach Intermediate Level!

Intermediate-Level Pathways for Bulgarian Learners

After achieving a basic level of Bulgarian, you may find that things become harder to learn. The new information is more complicated and should be gradually added to your existing knowledge. You’ll need to engage in many more practical exercises to start advancing. 

BulgarianPod101 has prepared appropriate lessons for this language level as well, to help intermediate learners accelerate their progress at this stage.

  • All About 

    Our All About course consists of 15 short audio lessons that will help you learn all about the society and culture of Bulgaria. The total duration of this series is 1hr 51min.
  • Conversational Phrases

    This is another short course of 10 audio lessons with a total duration of just 10 minutes. It will get you acquainted with more conversational phrases and teach you common words you’ll need in your conversations.
  • Essential Bulgarian for Emergencies

    This course consists of 8 lessons, and it’s a very practical set that will help you develop intermediate-level skills you can use in a pinch.
  • Level 3 Bulgarian

    As you start to feel more confident with level B1, you can try out our Level 3 Bulgarian pathway. It features 25 lessons for a total duration of 6hrs 21min; there are also 10 assignments to complete. This course is aligned with level B1 of the CEFR scale.

How Long Does it Take to Achieve an Advanced Level?

What language skills are developed at the advanced level?

The advanced level is commonly referred to as C1-C2 and is very close to the native language level. The C2 level is considered to be the highest proficiency possible, and reaching it means you can use Bulgarian fluently in nearly all contexts. 

Upon reaching an advanced level, you’ll be able to… 

  • …talk with native speakers fluently, without needing to grasp for specific words or phrases. 
  • …communicate with others about many different topics (personal experiences, professions, science, etc.).
  • …build a variety of complex sentences in all tenses. 

In addition, native Bulgarian speakers will be able to easily understand your thoughts and opinions when you speak. 

It’s important to note that lessons at this level no longer focus on grammar. Usually, they include reading or listening to media on different subjects in the Bulgarian language, as well as lectures and workshops.

Ready for an Advanced Level of Bulgarian?

You’re ready to start studying advanced Bulgarian if the following points apply to you:

  • You’ve completed the B2 level and you use Bulgarian grammar correctly.
  • You’re planning to work or study in Bulgaria.
  • You’re not satisfied with an average knowledge of Bulgarian and would like to gain fluency.

This level is definitely for those who are ready to double their efforts! 

How long does it take to become an advanced-level Bulgarian speaker?

As we mentioned above, Bulgarian is a Category III language, meaning that it features significant cultural and linguistic differences from English. 

To achieve proficiency in Bulgarian, intensive learners will need at least 1100 hours (44 weeks) of study. This equates to 5 hours per day, 5 days per week. You’ll need almost a full year of study to reach the C1 level of Bulgarian at this pace. If you study 2 hours a day (or less), you’ll need about 2 years to achieve this level.

How can you reach this level faster?

Although achieving the C1 level is not easy and takes a long time, there are some tips you could try in order to reach your goal faster:

  • Find a native Bulgarian friend with whom you can often communicate.
  • Spend a few months in Bulgaria to experience deep immersion into its language and culture.
  • Watch special Bulgarian lessons intended for advanced learners.
  • Continue to read, write, and listen in Bulgarian on a daily basis.

Advanced-Level Pathways for Bulgarian Learners

Are you serious about your studies and want some tips on how to learn Bulgarian faster? BulgarianPod101.com offers our advanced students plenty of fun and effective lessons to help enhance their skills. 

  • Level 5 Bulgarian 

    This advanced lesson pathway features 25 lessons for a total duration of 1hr 21min. This course is aligned with level C1 of the CEFR and covers topics including the top 10 Bulgarian tourist destinations, the top 10 Bulgarian leaders, and the top 10 Bulgarian writers.
  • Listening Comprehension for Advanced Learners

    Another great course is our Listening Comprehension for Advanced Learners series. Each lesson includes dialogues, answers to questions, and a full breakdown. The total duration of these 20 lessons is 1hr 9min.

If you’re looking for even more ways to stay motivated, check out the Innovative Language 101 app for mobile devices. It allows you to learn Bulgarian anywhere, anytime! This innovative app is appropriate for all levels, so don’t miss out.

Download the Free Mobile App to Learn Bulgarian!

How BulgarianPod101 Can Help You Learn the Bulgarian Language

In this article, we talked about how long it takes to learn Bulgarian for each level of proficiency. We also discussed what’s expected of learners at each level and how to reach your learning goals faster with BulgarianPod101.com

There’s still one key feature of our site we haven’t mentioned yet: MyTeacher for Premium PLUS members. With this service, you can get one-on-one tutoring and help from a native Bulgarian teacher. He or she can help you learn Bulgarian faster by guiding you step by step through the language—vocabulary, grammar rules, pronunciation, and more—so you can reach your desired proficiency level with little problem.

Before you go, we’re curious: How likely are you to start learning Bulgarian after reading this article? Feel free to reach out with any questions or concerns you still have—we’ll be glad to help!

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Bulgarian Proverbs Guide: Learn 30 Wise Bulgarian Sayings

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Proverbs are short and straightforward sayings that express valuable life advice. Studying Bulgarian proverbs means digging deeper into the local culture—it also means that you’re an advanced Bulgarian language learner who’s ready to take their knowledge to the next level. And while proverbs can be quite valuable to language learners, they also teach people how to be wiser in different life situations.

It’s always a fascinating adventure to explore the proverbs and sayings of other cultures, so BulgarianPod101 has compiled this list of thirty proverbs in Bulgarian along with their English translations. We think you’ll step away from this article a little wiser than before…

Are You Ready to Start This Journey to Wisdom?

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Beginner Vocabulary in Bulgarian Table of Contents
  1. Bulgarian Proverbs About Success
  2. Bulgarian Proverbs About Wisdom
  3. Bulgarian Proverbs About Love
  4. Bulgarian Proverbs About Friendship
  5. Bulgarian Proverbs About Food
  6. Bulgarian Proverbs About Health
  7. Bulgarian Proverbs About Work and Language Learning Efforts
  8. How BulgarianPod101 Can Help You Learn Bulgarian

1. Bulgarian Proverbs About Success

We all strive to be successful in life, whatever that means to us. So what essential features must one develop to achieve success in life? Here are a few Bulgarian proverbs and sayings to offer you some cultural perspective on the topic. 

#1 

BulgarianКапка по капка, вир става.
PronunciationKapka po kapka, vir stava.
LiteralDrop by drop turns into a pool.
EquivalentDrop by drop is the water pot filled.
This Bulgarian saying means that diligence and persistence lead to success. Even a few drops of water, if collected instead of being wasted, can add up over time so that you have enough to fill an entire pot. The same concept applies to money, experience, and any life skill that requires endurance. If you want to be successful, you have to be patient.

Fill Your Cup of Success Drop by Drop

#2 

BulgarianКойто се учи, той ще сполучи.
PronunciationKoyto se uchi, toy shte spoluchi.
LiteralA person who learns will succeed.
EquivalentKnowledge is power and power is success.
If you want to be successful, then learn, learn, learn. The more knowledge you gain, the more confidence you’ll have while meeting different challenges in your work. Although knowledge alone is not enough, it’s an important part of achieving success. 

Now, let’s apply this proverb to Bulgarian language learning. In order to become a fluent Bulgarian speaker, you must learn more and more Bulgarian words. Add new words to your vocabulary every single day and you’ll succeed.

#3 

BulgarianКапката дълбае камъка не със сила, а с постоянство.
PronunciationKapkata dalbae kamaka ne sas sila, a s postoyanstvo.
LiteralA drop carves a stone not with force, but with perseverance.
EquivalentIf you want a well, dig only in one place.
This Bulgarian saying means that people who would like to become real experts in something should work hard in their field until they’ve perfected their skills. There are many people out there who try hard in the beginning, only to give up once they get tired or discouraged, which prevents them from becoming successful. Everyone is able to be successful if he or she is persistent enough to continue even in the face of challenges.

#4 

BulgarianАко не кърпиш вехтото, ново няма да носиш.
PronunciationAko ne karpish vehtoto, novo nyama da nosish.
LiteralIf you don’t patch your old cloth, you will not wear a new one.
EquivalentSpending is quick, earning is slow.
Older Bulgarians in particular tend to prefer saving money over spending it on unnecessary things. Years of stringency made them frugal, and they respect people who know how to save money in order to spend it when a real need arises.

The Way to Success

2. Bulgarian Proverbs About Wisdom

Bulgarians have many proverbs about wisdom. In fact, they even have a national folklore character named Хитър Петър (Hitar Petar), who is a symbol of cunning, wisdom, and wit. That said, let’s go over a few inspirational Bulgarian proverbs related to wisdom! 

#5

BulgarianУтрото е по-мъдро от вечерта.
PronunciationUtroto e po-madro ot vecherta.
LiteralThe morning is wiser than the evening.
EquivalentAn hour in the morning is worth two in the evening.
On the one hand, this Bulgarian proverb suggests that the morning hours are the most productive ones. On the other hand, people in Bulgaria say this proverb when they have an important decision to make and it’s already late in the evening. They believe that making the decision should be postponed until the next morning, as the brain is tired in the evening and cannot think clearly. In the morning, when a person wakes up, he or she can consider problems much more efficiently and are more likely to make the right decision. That is why the morning is wiser than the evening.

#6

BulgarianДокато мъдрите се намъдруват, лудите се налудуват.
PronunciationDokato madrite se namadruvat, ludite se naluduvat.
LiteralWhile the wise people philosophize, the mad people go crazy.
This Bulgarian proverb means that if the rulers are weak, the whole nation will suffer at the hands of offenders. In this case, the word “wise” is used in an ironic sense, because these “wise people” only philosophize instead of taking real actions to stop the criminals.

#7

BulgarianУм царува, ум робува, ум патки пасе.
PronunciationUm tsaruva, um robuva, um patki pase.
LiteralThe mind reigns, the mind is enslaved, the mind grazes ducks.
EquivalentSome are wise and some are otherwise.
This Bulgarian saying means a few different things:
  • A person can become engaged in various activities, whether it’s science, management, or anything else. It depends on his motivation, what kind of work he is going to choose, and what future he will have.

  • Everyone is capable of being a shepherd, a hotel manager, a policeman, a builder, etc.

  • The decisions you make can take you down from the position of a ruler to that of a slave.

Some Are Wise and Some Are Otherwise.

#8

BulgarianПо дрехите посрещат, по ума изпращат.
PronunciationPo drehite posreshtat, po uma izprashtat.
EquivalentFirst impression is from your dress, last impression from your brains/wits.
The first thing people notice about you is your clothes, so they might initially be impressed by your appearance. But after talking with you, they’ll get an impression of your brain or wits. Wiser people don’t talk too much, and Bulgarians usually don’t welcome those who are too talkative. They like balanced conversations, so be aware of this if you’re ever invited to a Bulgarian’s home.

How Much Better to Get Wisdom than Gold...

3. Bulgarian Proverbs About Love

As a popular song states, “All you need is love.” In that vein, let’s explore some of the most popular Bulgarian love proverbs

#9

BulgarianЛюбов хубост не гледа.
PronunciationLyubov hubost ne gleda.
LiteralLove does not look for beautiful appearance.
EquivalentBeauty is not in the face; beauty is a light in the heart.
When one person loves another, he or she doesn’t notice any defects in the appearance or character of the one they love. A Bible proverb written by Solomon says that “love covers over all wrongs.”

#10

BulgarianСтарата любов ръжда не хваща.
PronunciationStarata lyubov razhda ne hvashta.
EquivalentOld love does not rust.
This saying means that old feelings do not fade away. Metal may rust over time and waste away, but feelings of love typically don’t and can even stay as strong as they were in the very beginning!

It’s interesting to note that Bulgarians have another proverb which states exactly the opposite: 

#11

BulgarianОчи, които дълго не се виждат, се забравят.
PronunciationOchi, koito dalgo ne se vizhdat, se zabravyat.
LiteralEyes that have not seen each other for a long time can be forgotten.
EquivalentOut of sight, out of mind.
If two lovers are separated for a long time, they might forget each other—especially if their love is not well-rooted.

Out of Sight, Out of Mind.

#12

BulgarianМладост без любов — пролет без цвете.
PronunciationMladost bez lyubov — prolet bez tsvete.
LiteralYouth without love is spring without a flower.
EquivalentWithout love, everything is in vain.
One cannot be happy without loving and being loved. This Bulgarian proverb states that love is the essence of life, making everything around it beautiful—just like flowers make springtime the most beautiful season.

Love


4. Bulgarian Proverbs About Friendship

Bulgarians value true friendship, so it should come as no surprise that we have many proverbs on the topic. Who knows? Maybe they’ll help you understand who your true friends are! 

#13

BulgarianПриятел в нужда се познава.
PronunciationPriyatel v nuzhda se poznava.
LiteralA friend is recognized in need.
EquivalentA friend in need is a friend indeed.
A true friend will always help out in times of need, and will never leave his or her friend to suffer alone. They’ll dedicate their time, money, and efforts to help you, doing everything they can to make you feel better. A false friend, on the other hand, will hide from you as soon as you run into troubles.

#14

BulgarianКажи ми какви са приятелите ти, за да ти кажа какъв си.
PronunciationKazhi mi kakvi sa priyatelite ti, za da ti kazha kakav si.
EquivalentTell me who your friends are, and I will tell you who you are.
This Bulgarian saying means that the friends you hang out with can define you. This makes sense, as friends tend to share personality and behavioral traits. As such, you can tell a lot about a person based on who their friends are. 

What Friendship Looks Like

#15

BulgarianЛют човек приятел не държи.
PronunciationLyut chovek priyatel ne darzhi.
LiteralA furious man does not keep any friends around.
It’s difficult for some people to find friends. They might think that the problem lies with other people, but often the problem is hidden within themselves. No one wants to hang around or be associated with an angry person.

Hey, You!!! Why Don’t You Become My Friend?!

#16

BulgarianПриятелството си е приятелство, но сиренето е с пари.
PronunciationPriyatelstvoto si e priyatelstvo, no sireneto e s pari.
LiteralFriendship is friendship, but cheese costs money.
Although a friend in need is a friend indeed, a true friend will not take advantage of a friend’s generosity. Just because your friend sells cheese doesn’t mean you should expect to get any for free!


5. Bulgarian Proverbs About Food

Food is an important detail of one’s life, so here are a few wise Bulgarian sayings related to food.

#17

BulgarianНикой не е по-голям от хляба.
PronunciationNikoy ne e po-golyam ot hlyaba.
LiteralNo one is larger than bread.
This saying reveals the attitude that Bulgarians have toward bread and how important it is to them. In Bulgaria, bread plays an important role and it’s always present on the table. It’s also considered the most holy of foods.

The Importance of Bread for Bulgarians

#18

BulgarianУмният навсякъде си изкарва хляба.
PronunciationUmniyat navsyakade si izkarva hlyaba.
LiteralA smart man earns his bread anywhere.
EquivalentA smart man can earn a living anywhere.
The saying “to earn your own bread” in Bulgarian means to earn a living, which again underlines the importance of bread in Bulgarian culture. This saying means that the wise can overcome all challenges so that they always have enough to live on wherever they are. 

#19

BulgarianГладна кокошка просо сънува.
PronunciationGladna kokoshka proso sanuva.
LiteralA hungry hen dreams of millet.
This proverb relates to wishful thinking. It means that some people dream of things greater than what they have, but they take no action to make it happen in reality.

A Hungry Hen Dreams of Millet

#20

BulgarianДен година храни.
PronunciationDen godina hrani.
TranslationA single day helps you get food for the whole year.
In the past, this saying meant that every day of the year was equally important for earning a living. But nowadays, it’s mostly associated with unfair traders who make their prices unrealistically high in order to make lots of money quickly and remain idle the rest of the year. 


6. Bulgarian Proverbs About Health

Health is among the most valuable acquisitions a person can have, so let’s see what Bulgarian proverbs have to say about it. 

#21

BulgarianЗдрав дух – здраво тяло.
PronunciationZdrav duh – zdravo tyalo.
EquivalentA healthy mind, a healthy body.
This Bulgarian proverb expresses the importance of inner peace, forgiveness, trust, etc., for people’s wellbeing. We should keep our spirit healthy in order to have a healthy body, as stress, anxiety, suspicion, and other negative feelings can increase our chances of getting sick. 

#22

BulgarianНикой не може да бъде по-добър лекар от верния приятел.
PronunciationNikoy ne mozhe da bade po-dobar lekar ot verniya priyatel.
EquivalentNo one is a better doctor than a faithful friend.
This Bulgarian saying is a continuation of the previous one. A faithful friend is able to bear our griefs, so we won’t feel alone in our sorrow. 

A similar proverb goes: 

Споделената мъка е половин мъка, а споделената радост е двойна радост. 
Spodelenata maka e polovin maka, a spodelenata radost e dvoyna radost.
“Shared sorrow is half the sorrow; shared joy is double the joy.”

No One Is a Better Doctor than a Faithful Friend

#23

BulgarianЖивот, здраве и добри помисли като има човек, пари не му трябват.
PronunciationZhivot, zdrave i dobri pomisli kato ima chovek, pari ne mu tryabvat.
TranslationWhen a person has a good life, good health, and good thoughts, he does not need money.
Мoney can’t buy happiness! This saying is as old as money, but it’s true. You can find poor people barely earning a living who are constantly smiling and happy, as well as millionaires who are so miserable and depressed that they take their own lives. This Bulgarian proverb states that there are three factors involved in being happy: life, health, and good thoughts.

#24

BulgarianЗдравето е най-големият имот.
PronunciationZdraveto e nay-golemiyat imot.
TranslationOur health is our largest property.
No matter how many properties we have, and no matter how luxurious and large they are, we cannot enjoy them (or our lives) if we aren’t healthy. That’s why health is considered one of the most valuable and precious things in this world!

Do you have health problems you would like to share with your Bulgarian friends in their own language? BulgarianPod101 can help! Just head over to our vocabulary list of Bulgarian Vocabulary for Common Health Problems

7. Bulgarian Proverbs About Work and Language Learning Efforts

Those who are diligent and persistent in their language learning efforts will soon see progress and advance quickly. For extra motivation, let’s see what Bulgarian proverbs say about work and learning

#25

BulgarianЧовек се учи, докато е жив.
PronunciationChovek se uchi, dokato e zhiv.
LiteralA person learns while he is alive.
EquivalentYou are never too old to learn.
This popular Bulgarian proverb means that we never stop learning, as knowledge itself is endless and our life is too short to comprehend it all.

On the other hand, this saying could also be applied to your Bulgarian language studies. The more you learn, the more successful you’ll be over time. 

Learn to succeed

#26

BulgarianБез труд почивката не е сладка.
PronunciationBez trud pochivkata ne e sladka.
LiteralWithout work, rest is not sweet.
This saying encourages diligence. It suggests that those who don’t work cannot feel the sweetness of rest. They probably cannot sleep as well as those who work hard all day.

#27

BulgarianРаботата на ум учи.
PronunciationRabotata na um uchi.
LiteralThe work teaches the mind.
One only gains practical skills and experience through working, and the same concept applies to language learning. Once you gain minimal knowledge of a language, you should start practicing it in real life to expand upon your skills and gain new ones. Passive learning is often in vain.  

#28

BulgarianЛозето не ще молитва, а мотика.
PronunciationLozeto ne shte molitva, a motika.
LiteralThe vineyard does not need a prayer, but a hoe.
EquivalentGod helps those who help themselves.
This saying is quite popular in Bulgaria, and it conveys the importance of hard work in being successful. If you want your vineyard to give fruit, don’t just sit beside it and pray; take the hoe and start working. No matter how many prayers you say, you won’t receive a good crop unless you work for it. 

The Discerning Heart Seeks Knowledge

8. How BulgarianPod101 Can Help You Learn Bulgarian

In this Bulgarian proverbs guide, you’ve picked up some useful phrases and gained some valuable insight into the beauty of Bulgarian culture. Learning these proverbs will make it easier for you to communicate with the local people and help you better fit in during your stay in Bulgaria. 

If you would like to learn even more Bulgarian proverbs or dig deeper into Bulgarian grammar, we recommend you try our MyTeacher service for Premium PLUS members. You can choose a private teacher from our team of experienced Bulgarian language experts, who will give you additional information on any topics of your choosing and provide you with practical assignments to hone your skills. 

We hope you enjoyed today’s lesson on Bulgarian proverbs, and that you feel a little bit wiser now. 😉 Before you go, let us know in the comments which of these proverbs you can relate to the most right now. We look forward to hearing from you!

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A Comprehensive Bulgarian Grammar Overview

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Many foreign language learners give up as soon as they reach the grammar. Learning grammar seems like Mission: Impossible to them!

But guess what? Thanks to BulgarianPod101, you can now learn all of the Bulgarian grammar basics in a fun and easy-to-understand way. We think that the most challenging part of your language learning journey should also be the most fun and intriguing! 

On this page, you’ll find a breakdown of the most important Bulgarian grammar rules. We’ll cover topics ranging from word order to tenses, providing you with insight and examples to make your learning experience as painless as possible. Make sure to complete each of the Bulgarian grammar exercises we’ve included, as they will help you better understand the rules and how to apply them.

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Beginner Vocabulary in Bulgarian Table of Contents
  1. General Rules
  2. Vocabulary
  3. Special Grammar Point 1: Gender
  4. Special Grammar Point 2: Number
  5. Special Grammar Point 3: Definite Articles
  6. Special Grammar Point 4: Case
  7. Special Grammar Point 5: Tenses
  8. How BulgarianPod101 Can Help You Learn More Bulgarian
  9. Answers to the Practical Bulgarian Grammar Exercises

1. General Rules

Before we move on to the heavy stuff, let’s go over a couple of basic Bulgarian grammar points every learner should be familiar with: word order and vocabulary.

Word Order

Let’s start with word order and how to properly build Bulgarian sentences. We have good news for you: Bulgarian word order is flexible, so you have fewer chances to make a mistake! The rather free word order of Bulgarian is possible thanks to subject-verb agreement. Take the following example:

  • Той (S) видя (V) момичето (O) в далечината (A).
    Toy vidya momicheto v dalechinata.
    “He saw the girl in the distance.”

So the pattern of this sentence is:

S (Subject) + V (Verb) + O (Object) + A (Adjunct)

Now, let’s try to change the word order of the same sentence and see what the possible options are.

  • В далечината той видя момичето.
    V dalechinata toy vidya momicheto.
    “In the distance, he saw the girl.”
    A + S + V + O
  • Момичето той видя в далечината.
    Momicheto toy vidya v dalechinata.
    “The girl he saw in the distance.”
    O + S + V + A
  • Той видя в далечината момичето.
    Toy vidya v dalechinata momicheto.
    “He saw in the distance the girl.”
    S + V + A + O

    You can find more insight on this topic in our Bulgarian word order article!

Practical Bulgarian Grammar Exercises: Word Order

Bulgarian Word Order Exercises Can be as Fun as Puzzle Games

Do you like puzzle games? The following word order task is very similar to completing a puzzle, so why not try it? 

We’ll give you a sentence with its pattern explanation. Your task is to change the order of the words in that sentence according to the patterns we list. 

If you can’t wait till the end to check whether your answers are correct, you can scroll directly to the bottom of this page and find the answers under the appropriate heading.

Here’s your exercise:

  • Ана (S) занесе (V) цветя (O) на майка си (A).
    Ana zanese tsvetya na mayka si.
    “Anna brought flowers to her mother.”

The pattern of the sentence above is:

S + V + O + A

Now, try to change the order of the sentence to follow each of these patterns:

S + V + A + O
O + V + S + A 
A + S + V + O

Done? Great!

Now, try to translate the following sentence into Bulgarian:

  • I study the Bulgarian language from a textbook.

After you’re done, change the word order to match these English equivalents:

  1. From a textbook I study the Bulgarian language.
  2. The Bulgarian language I study from a textbook.
  3. I study from a textbook the Bulgarian language.

When you’re ready, try to make a scheme for each Bulgarian sentence, the same way they’re done above. The answers can be found at the very end of this article.

2. Vocabulary

Another crucial element of Bulgarian grammar for beginners to learn early is the vocabulary. Here, we’ll briefly look at the different parts of speech.

Parts of SpeechBulgarianEnglish
Nouns жена (zhena)woman
Adjectives красив (krasiv)beautiful
Verbs вървя (varvya)to go
Adverbs бавно (bavno)slowly
Pronouns: Personalаз, ти, той, тя, то, ние, вие, те
(az, ti, toy, tya, to, nie, vie, te)
I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they
Pronouns: Demonstrativeтова
(tova)
this
Pronouns: Possessiveмой, твой, негов, неин, негов, наш, ваш, техен
(moy, tvoy, negov, nein, nash, vash, tehen)
my, yours, his, her, its, our, yours, theirs
Conjunctions и, но 
(i, no)
and, but
Prepositionsв, над, зад, пред, под, между
(v, nad, zad, pred, pod, mezhdu)
in, over, behind, before, under, between

Now, let’s try to make Bulgarian sentences using the words from the table above.

Beautiful Woman

Adjective + Noun
красива жена
krasiva zhena
“beautiful woman”

Noun + Verb + Adjective
Жената е красива.
Zhenata e krasiva.
“The woman is beautiful.”

Noun + Verb + Adverb 
Жената върви бавно.
Zhenata varvi bavno.
“The woman walks slowly.”

Adjective + Noun + Verb + Adverb 
Красивата жена върви бавно.
Krasivata zhena varvi bavno.
“The beautiful woman walks slowly.”

Demonstrative Pronoun + Verb + Possessive Pronoun + Noun
Това е моята жена.
Tova e moyata zhena.
“This is my wife.”

Personal Pronoun + Verb + Adjective + Noun
Аз съм красива жена.
Az sam krasiva zhena.
“I am a beautiful woman.”

Adjective + Noun + Verb + Adverb + Preposition + Noun
Красивата жена върви бавно в парка.
Krasivata zhena varvi bavno v parka.
“The beautiful woman walks slowly in the park.”


Practical Bulgarian Grammar Exercises: Vocabulary

Now, it’s your turn to practice. First, study this table.

Parts of SpeechBulgarianEnglish
Nouns мъж (mazh)man
Adjectives умен (umen)smart
Verbs работя (rabotya)to work
Adverbs бързо (barzo)quickly
Pronouns: Personalаз, ти, той, тя, то, ние, вие, те
(az, ti, toy, tya, to, nie, vie, te)
I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they
Pronouns: Demonstrativeтози [for masculine]
(tozi)
this
Pronouns: Possessiveмой, твой, негов, неин, негов, наш, ваш, техен
(moy, tvoy, negov, nein, nash, vash, tehen)
mine, yours, his, her, its, ours, yours, theirs
Conjunctions и, но
(i, no)
and, but
Prepositionsв, над, зад, пред, под, между
(v, nad, zad, pred, pod, mezhdu)
in, over, behind, before, under, between

Now, write the following phrases and sentences in Bulgarian:

Adjective + Noun  
smart man

Noun + Verb + Adjective
The man is smart.

Noun + Verb + Adverb 
The man works quickly.

Adjective + Noun + Verb + Adverb 
The smart man works quickly.

Demonstrative Pronoun + Noun + Verb + Possessive Pronoun
This man is mine.

Personal Pronouns + Verb + Adjective + Noun
You are a smart man.

3. Special Grammar Point 1: Gender

Like many languages, Bulgarian has three grammatical genders: masculine, feminine, and neuter. A word’s gender can often be determined by its ending. 

1. Nouns of masculine gender typically end in a consonant

Examples:

    ➢ мъж (mаzh) – man
    ➢ син (sin) – son
    ➢ стол (stol) – chair
    ➢ кон (kon) – horse

2. Nouns of feminine gender typically have the endings -а/-я

Examples:

    ➢ жена (zhena) – woman
    ➢ ябълка (yabalka) – apple
    ➢ кола (kola) – car
    ➢ чиния (chiniya) – plate

3. Nouns of neuter gender typically have the endings -е/-о

Examples:

    ➢ море (more) – sea
    ➢ поле (pole) – field
    ➢ месо (meso) – meat
    ➢ село (selo) – village

There are some exceptions for each grammatical gender that you should take into account. These are:

Exceptions for the masculine gender

Some common nouns of masculine gender may have the endings -а or -я.

    ➢ баща (bashta) – father
    ➢ старшина (starshina) – sergeant-major
    ➢ съдия (sadiya) – judge

Other nouns of masculine gender may have the ending -о (when they refer to close relatives) or -и (when they refer to months of the year).

    ➢ чичо (chicho) – uncle
    ➢ дядо (dyado) – grandpa
    ➢ януари (yanuari) – January
    ➢ февруари (fevruari) – February

You can learn more of these words in our article on How To Talk About Family in Bulgarian and our vocabulary list for Talking About Months in Bulgarian!

Exceptions for the feminine gender

Some common nouns of feminine gender may have the endings -ст or -есен.

    ➢ младост (mladost) – youth
    ➢ радост (radost) – joy
    ➢ песен (pesen) – song
    есен (esen) – autumn

Some common nouns of feminine gender may end in a consonant.

    ➢ любов (lyubov) – love
    ➢ нощ (nosht) – night
    ➢ смрад (smrad) – stink

Exceptions for the neuter gender

Some common nouns of neuter gender may end in -и, -у, or -ю. Usually, these words have a foreign origin.

    ➢ такси (taksi) – taxi
    ➢ жури (zhuri) – jury
    ➢ бижу (bizhu) – jewel

Practical Bulgarian Grammar Exercises: Genders

Now, try to categorize the following words into the table below based on their gender:

крак, младост, воля, корен, море, селище, колело, кожа, кино, мрак, мравка, такси, март, нощ, чичо, корона, слънце, януари, бижу, корен, майка, баща, обица, бюро

Masculine genderFeminine gender Neuter gender 
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .

4. Special Grammar Point 2: Number

Bulgarian language grammar recognizes nouns as being either singular or plural. 

It’s interesting to note that Old Bulgarian also had the so-called dual number, which ended in -a. It was used for referring to a pair of things. Today, it’s still used for countable nouns of masculine gender, but only for inanimate objects. Animated objects end in -и when in their countable forms. Here are a few examples:

SingularCountable Noun FormPlural
стол
 stol
“a chair”
пет стола 
pet stola
“five chairs”
много столове 
mnogo stolove
“many chairs”
домат
 domat
“a tomato”
два домата 
dva domata
“two tomatoes”
много домати 
mnogo domati
“many tomatoes”

Let’s now look at the endings for plural and singular nouns for each gender:

SingularPlural
Masculine gender

Samples:
-consonant

студент (student) – student
кон (kon) – horse
стол (stol) – chair
-и, -е, ове

студенти (studenti) – student
sконе (kone) – horses
столове (stolove) – chairs
Feminine gender

Samples:
-а, -я, -ст, -есен

вода (voda) – water
чиния (chiniya) – plate
радост (radost) – joy
песен (pesen) – song


води (vodi) – waters
чинии (chiniyi) – plates
радости (radosti) – joys
песни (pesni) – songs
Neuter gender

Samples:
-о, -е, -и, -у, -ю

село (selo) – village
море (more) – sea
такси (taxi) – taxi
бижу (bizhu) – jewel
-а, -та

села (sela) – villages
морета (moreta) – seas
таксита (taxita) – taxies
бижута (bizhuta) – jewelry

Practical Bulgarian Grammar Exercises: Number

Plural Form of the Nouns

Try to make the plural form of the following nouns:

майка –
баща –
кино –
такси –
мравка –
обица –
слънце –
корен –
кожа –
море –

*Tip: If you find it difficult, you can refer to the previous exercise to see the gender of these nouns first. You can also check the correct answers at the end of this page.

5. Special Grammar Point 3: Definite Articles

In contrast to English and other languages where the definite article is written in front of the word, the definite article in Bulgarian is postfixed and looks like this:

IndefiniteDefinite
Masculine gender

Samples:


студент (student) – student
кон (kon) – horse
Definite article: ът, -ят

студентът (studentat) – the student
конят (konyat) – the horse
Feminine gender

Samples:


вода (voda) – water
чиния (chiniya) – plate
радост (radost) – joy
Definite article: та

водата (vodata) – the water
чинията (chiniyata) – the plate
радостта (radostta) – the joy
Neuter gender

Samples:


село (selo) – village
море (more) – sea
такси (taxi) – taxi
-тo

селото (sela) – the village
морето (moreta) – the sea
таксито (taxita) – the taxi

Note that the definite article for plural nouns is -те for masculine and feminine, and -та for neuter gender.

Practical Bulgarian Grammar Exercises: Definite Articles

Let’s return to our list from the previous section and try to add a definite article to each word. Please note that although баща (bashta), or “father,” is masculine, we add the feminine definite article to it because of its -a ending.

майка –
баща –
кино –
такси –
мравка –
обица –
слънце –
корен –
кожа –
море –

Once you complete the task above, make a summary of what you’ve learned so far by filling in the following table. The first row is filled out for you as an example.

*Tip: Determine the correct definite articles by looking at your answers from Practical Bulgarian Grammar Exercises: Number where you made the list of singular words plural.

SingularSingular- DefinitePluralPlural – Definite
майка майкатамайкимайките
баща 
кино 
такси 
мравка 
обица 
слънце 
корен 
кожа 
море 

6. Special Grammar Point 4: Case

In Bulgarian grammar, cases are used only for personal nouns. There are three cases:

  • Nominative – аз, ти, той, тя, то, ние, вие, те
  • Accusative – ме, те, го, я, го, ни, ми, ги
  • Dative – ми, ти, му, й, му, ни, ви, им

Here’s a table with translations to make things clearer:

Nominative Accusative Dative 
аз – Iме – meми – to me
ти – youтe – youти – to you
той – heго – himму – to him
тя – sheя – herй – to her
то – itго – itму – to it
ние – weни – usни – to us
вие – youви – youви – to you
те – theyги – themим – to them

Examples:

  • Аз го попитах как се чувства. (го – Accusative)
    Az go popitah kak se chuvstva.
    “I asked him how he was feeling.”
  • Аз му дадох моята книга. (му – Dative)
    Az mu dadoh moyata kniga.
    “I gave my book to him.”

Practical Bulgarian Grammar Exercises: Case

Use the table and examples above to translate the following sentences into Bulgarian:

  • He asked her how he was feeling. (Accusative)
  • She gave my book to me. (Dative)
  • We asked them how they were feeling. (Accusative)
  • They gave the book to us. (Dative)

7. Special Grammar Point 5: Tenses

The toughest part of Bulgarian grammar is related to the tenses. There are nine main tenses, but the most used ones are present tense, future tense, past aorist tense, and past imperfect tense. 

Let’s see all nine tenses in a table:

Bulgarian TensesExampleTranslation
Present tenseАз уча български.
Az ucha balgarski.
“I study Bulgarian.”
Future tenseАз ще уча български.
Az shte ucha balgarski.
“I will study Bulgarian.”
Past aorist tenseАз учих български.
Az uchih balgarski.
“I studied Bulgarian.”
Past imperfect tenseАз учех български.
Az ucheh balgarski.
“I was studying Bulgarian.”
Past future tenseАз щях да уча български.
Az shtyah da ucha balgarski.
“I was going to study Bulgarian.”
Present perfect tenseАз съм учил български.
Az sam uchil balgarski.
“I have studied Bulgarian.”
Past perfect tenseАз бях учил български.
Az byah uchil balgarski.
“I had studied Bulgarian.”
Future perfect tenseАз ще съм учил български.
Az shte sam uchil balgarski.
“I will have studied Bulgarian.”
Past future perfect tenseАз щях да съм учил български.
Az shtyah da sam uchil balgarski.
“I would have studied Bulgarian.”

I Study Bulgarian

Practical Bulgarian Grammar Exercises: Tenses

Now, let’s practice tenses! Think of it as a game. Just take the table above and change the verb уча (ucha), or “study,” with ходя (hodya), meaning “go.” 

Bulgarian TensesExampleTranslation
Present tenseАз ходя в парка.
Az hodya в parka.
“I walk in the park.”
Future tense“I will walk in the park.”
Past aorist tense“I walked in the park.”
Past imperfect tense“I was walking in the park.”
Past future tense“I was going to walk in the park.”
Present perfect tense“I have walked in the park.”
Past perfect tense“I had walked in the park.”
Future perfect tense“I will have walked in the park.”
Past future perfect tense“I would have walked in the park.”

8. How BulgarianPod101 Can Help You Learn More Bulgarian

BulgarianPod101 prepared this extensive guide to the basic Bulgarian grammar rules to help you more easily get used to this foreign language. We hope that you found our overview helpful and have successfully completed all of the practical exercises. However, if you still have any questions or concerns about a topic we covered, don’t hesitate to reach out to us. We’ll get back to you as soon as possible! 

Do you feel ready to learn Bulgarian grammar in more detail? 

We provide a range of learning tools and materials for learners at every level. From free vocabulary lists to audio and video lessons, there’s something for everyone on BulgarianPod101.com. 

You can also choose your own Bulgarian teacher from MyTeacher when you sign up for a Premium PLUS account. Your teacher will help you successfully overcome all the grammar challenges you might encounter. 

And now, let’s check your answers!

9. Answers to the Practical Bulgarian Grammar Exercises

Check Your Answers

Answers to: Practical Bulgarian Grammar Exercises: Word Order

  • Ана занесе цветя на майка си.
    Ana zanese tsvetya na mayka si.
    “Anna brought flowers to her mother.”
    S + V + O + A

Answers

S + V + A + O
Ана занесе на майка си цветя.
Ana zanese na mayka si tsvetya.
“Anna brought to her mother flowers.”

O + V + S + A 
Цветя занесе Ана на майка си.
Tsvetya zanese Ana na mayka si.
“Flowers brought Anna to her mother.”

A + S + V + O
На майка си Ана занесе цветя.
Na mayka si Ana zanese tsvetya.
“To her mother Anna brought flowers.”

I study the Bulgarian language from a textbook.
Аз уча български език от учебник.
Az ucha balgarski ezik ot uchebnik.
S + V + O + A

From a textbook study I the Bulgarian language.
От учебник аз уча български език.
Ot uchebnik az ucha balgarski ezik.
A + S + V + O

The Bulgarian language I study from a textbook.
Български език аз уча от учебник.
Balgarski ezik az ucha ot uchebnik.
O + S + V + A

I study from a textbook the Bulgarian language.
Аз уча от учебник български език.
Az ucha ot uchebnik balgarski ezik.
S + V + A O

Answers to: Practical Bulgarian Grammar Exercises: Vocabulary

Adjective + Noun  
smart man
умен мъж
umen mazh

Noun + Verb + Adjective
The man is smart.
Мъжът е умен.
Mazhat e umen.

Noun + Verb + Adverb 
The man works quickly.
Мъжът работи бързо.
Mazhat raboti barzo.

Adjective + Noun + Verb + Adverb 
The smart man works quickly.
Умният мъж работи бързо.
Umniyat mаzh raboti barzo.

Demonstrative Pronoun + Noun + Verb + Possessive Pronoun
This man is mine.
Този мъж е мой.
Tozi mazh e moy.

Personal Pronouns + Verb + Adjective + Noun 
You are a smart man.
Ти си умен мъж.
Ti si umen mazh.

Answers to: Practical Bulgarian Grammar Exercises: Genders

Masculine genderFeminine gender Neuter gender 
кракмладосткино
коренволяморе
мраккожаселище
мартмравкаколело
чичонощтакси
януарикоронабижу
коренмайкабюро
бащаобицаслънце

Answers to: Practical Bulgarian Grammar Exercises: Number

майка – майки 
баща – бащи
кино – кина
такси – таксита
мравка – мравки
обица – обици
слънце – слънца
корен – корени
кожа – кожи море – морета

Answers to: Practical Bulgarian Grammar Exercises: Definite Articles

майка – майката 
баща – бащата
кино – кинотo
такси – такситo
мравка – мравката 
обица – обицата 
воля – волята 
слънце – слънцетo
корен – коренът
кожа – кожата
море – моретo

SingularSingular- DefinitePluralPlural – Definite
майка майкатамайкимайките
баща бащата бащи бащите 
кино киното кина кината 
такси таксито таксита такситата 
мравка мравкатамравки мравките 
обица обицата обици обиците 
слънце слънцето слънца слънцата 
корен коренът корени корените 
кожа кожата кожаи кожите 
море морето морета моретата 

Answers to: Practical Bulgarian Grammar Exercises: Cases

  • He asked her how he was feeling. (Accusative)
    Той я попита как се чувства. (я – Accusative)
    (Toy ya popita kak se chuvstva)
  • She gave my book to me. (Dative)
    Тя ми даде моята книга. (ми – Dative)
    Tya mi dade moyata kniga.
  • We asked them how they were feeling. (Accusative)
    Ние ги попитахме как се чувстват. (ги – Accusative)
    Nie gi popitahme kak se chuvstvat.
  • They gave the book to us. (Dative)
    Тe ни дадоха книгата. (ни – Dative)
    Te ni dadoha knigata.

Answers to: Practical Bulgarian Grammar Exercises: Tenses

Bulgarian TensesExampleTranslation
Present tenseАз ходя в парка.
Az hodya v parka.
“I walk in the park.”
Future tenseАз ще ходя в парка.
Az she hodya v parka.
“I will walk in the park.”
Past aorist tenseАз ходих в парка.
Az hodih v parka.
“I walked in the park.”
Past imperfect tenseАз ходех в парка.
Az hodeh v parka.
“I was walking in the park.”
Past future tenseАз щях да ходя в парка.
Az shtyah da hodya v parka.
“I was going to walk in the park.”
Present perfect tenseАз съм ходил в парка.
Az sam hodil v parka.
“I have walked in the park.”
Past perfect tenseАз бях ходил в парка.
Az byah hodil в parka.
“I had walked in the park.”
Future perfect tenseАз ще съм ходил в парка.
Az she sam hodil в parka.
“I will have walked in the park.”
Past future perfect tenseАз щях да съм ходил в парка
Az shtyah da sam hodil в parka.
“I would have walked in the park.”
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How Hard is it to Learn Bulgarian? Overcome the Difficulties.

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Learning a new language is like starting a new journey! It opens up hundreds of opportunities for you and acquaints you with different ways of thinking, unknown cultures, unique people, a rich history, and ways of life you may not be familiar with. By learning a country’s language, you also learn about that country’s cuisine, festivals, traditions, and customs. And considering the rich cultural heritage of Bulgaria, Bulgarian is one language you’ll love learning. 

That said, how hard is it to learn Bulgarian? 

If you start by learning the grammar—all those endless verb forms and conjugations, as well as the adjectives and their forms—there’s a good chance that you’ll soon become lost in the multiple rules and give up. This is not a good way to start, especially if you’re an absolute beginner.

Focusing on Bulgarian Grammar Rules Can Soon Cause You to Give Up!

As you can see, how difficult Bulgarian is for you depends on how you choose to learn. Yes, learning a new language can be a challenge, but anyone can do it! BulgarianPod101 is here not only to motivate you in your studies and to dispel all your doubts, but also to make the process of learning fun and pleasurable—just like each new journey should be. 

So let’s take a look at what things might make the Bulgarian language hard to learn and how to overcome them. See for yourself that it is easy to learn Bulgarian with BulgarianPod101.

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Learning Bulgarian Table of Contents
  1. Is it Hard to Learn Bulgarian?
  2. What are the Hardest and Easiest Parts of Learning Bulgarian?
  3. I Want to Learn Bulgarian. Where Should I Start?
  4. Five Tips for New Bulgarian Learners
  5. Why Don’t You Start Learning Bulgarian Right Away? (4 Practical Exercises)
  6. Why is BulgarianPod101 Great for Learning Bulgarian?

1. Is it Hard to Learn Bulgarian?

The very first challenge that new Bulgarian-learners face is studying the Cyrillic alphabet. Yes, it’s completely different from the Latin alphabet, but fortunately, there’s an easy way to learn the Bulgarian alphabet. Let’s study it together!

How to Learn the Bulgarian Alphabet Easier

To make the learning process easier, let’s review the Bulgarian alphabet in chunks. We’ll start with the similarities that you can easily recognize between the two alphabet systems.

Bulgarian LettersEnglish Letters
АаАа
БбBb
Дд Dd
ЕеEe
ЗзZz (note that this Bulgarian letter looks like the cursive ‘Z’ in English)
КкKk
МмMm
ОоOo
ТтTt

Isn’t it great that you already know nine Bulgarian letters? Let’s move on.

The next thing to remember is that:

  • The Bulgarian В is not the English B
  • The Bulgarian H is not the English H
  • The Bulgarian P is not the English P 

Here’s how to remember them:

Bulgarian ВвEnglish Vv
Bulgarian English Nn
Bulgarian English Rr

So far, we’ve covered twelve out of thirty Bulgarian letters. Not bad, right? Let’s move forward.

Bulgarian LettersEnglish Letters
Гг Gg
ПпPp
ФфFf
ЛлLl
УуUu (pronounced like “oo” in “tool”)
ХхHh
Ии (like opposite N)Ii (pronounced like “i” in “igloo”)
CcSs

Twenty letters so far. Let’s practice their pronunciation! Try to read the following words, and then check their pronunciation in parentheses below! To get a headstart in your vocabulary learning, you can also make flashcards for these words. 

  • баба, каза, мама, коза, мотор, паун, доктор, ухо
    (baba, kaza, mama, koza, motor, paun, doktor, ooho)
    grandma, said, mom, goat, motor, peacock, doctor, ear

Excellent! Now, let’s study ten more Bulgarian letters. 

Although English-speakers are not accustomed to these next letters (as most of them are pronounced as a combination of two or more sounds), we believe that you’ll get used to them with some practice. For example, you can study two letters a day (one in the morning and one in the evening) and have them memorized in just five days!

Bulgarian LettersEnglish Letters
ЖжPronounced like ZH or like S in “treasure”
ЙйPronounced like Y in “yes”
ЦцPronounced like TS in “fits”
ЧчPronounced like CH in “church”
ШшPronounced like SH in “shoe”
ЩщPronounced like SHT in “shtick”
ЪъPronounced like U in “turn”
ьSoft sign
ЮюPronounced like YU or U in “menu”
Яя (like a backwards R)Pronounced like YA in “yacht”

The easiest way to get used to these letters is through practical reading exercises. For example, try to read the following word:

  • мартеница
    (martenitsa)
Bulgarian мартеница

You can read more about the Bulgarian мартеница, which will help you learn more about the traditions of this country.

Here are a few more words for practicing your Bulgarian reading skills:

  • щастие, шал, човек, цвете, жаба
    (shtastie, shal, chovek, tsvete, zhaba)
    happiness, scarf, man, flower, frog

Don’t forget to make more flashcards! We’ll be practicing some of these words again in a later section of this article. Hopefully, this new approach to learning the Bulgarian alphabet will help you memorize it easier.
    BulgarianPod101 has prepared a detailed guide to the Bulgarian alphabet that can be downloaded here for free. We highly recommend it for beginners!

2. What are the Hardest and Easiest Parts of Learning Bulgarian?

Now that you’ve overcome the first difficulty, which is learning the Bulgarian alphabet, let’s take a look at what makes Bulgarian hard to learn (and which things make it pretty easy).

What is the Hardest Part of Learning Bulgarian?

One of the biggest difficulties for Bulgarian-learners is pronunciation, especially when Bulgarian textbooks make it seem even more complicated. But how difficult is it to learn Bulgarian pronunciation and phonetic changes, really? Well, once you have the alphabet down, the process really isn’t so difficult. These five tips will help you a lot!

Tip #1 – Imitate native Bulgarian-speakers!

The more you listen to how natives speak, the better. Doing so will allow you to get used to the proper pronunciation and the accents. Just like little children, we learn better by imitating others than by reading rules and instructions.

Tip #2 – Start reading short Bulgarian texts by repeating what you hear!

The best way to do this is by listening to a dialogue between native speakers and repeating what they say. Luckily, BulgarianPod101.com has tons of audio and video lessons featuring native speaker dialogues with transcripts. Perfect for practicing your reading, listening, and speaking skills at the same time!

Listen and Repeat!

Tip #3 – The more you practice, the better your pronunciation will get!

While you can’t expect to have perfect pronunciation after only a month of practice, practicing every day will significantly improve your pronunciation over time. This is because you’ll get used to the difficult words through exposure, and they won’t seem so hard anymore. 

Tip #4 – Don’t be afraid to talk to others in Bulgarian!

This is the most important tip! Even if your pronunciation isn’t very good yet, try to speak daily with native Bulgarians. This will improve your pronunciation little by little.  

Tip #5 – Learn the longer words in chunks!

The long words are hardest to pronounce. But if you divide them into syllables, the pronunciation will seem much easier. For example:

  • Здравейте
    (Zdraveyte)
    “Hello” – for formal or plural form

Can be divided into:

Здрав – ей – те – and the accent falls on the second syllable

  • Благодаря
    (Blagodarya)
    “Thank you!”

Can be divided into:

Благо – да – ря – and the accent falls on the last syllable

Is it Hard to Learn Bulgarian Verbs?

The answer is yes, unless you know this trick to memorize them easier: 

Divide the verbs into groups with common roots and different prefixes that change the meaning of each verb. Here’s an example of such a group:

Bulgarian verb + pronunciationEnglish meaning
    казвам (kazvam)  “I say”
приказвам (prikazvam)“I speak”
разказвам (razkazvam)“I narrate”
доказвам (dokazvam)“I prove”
наказвам (nakazvam)“I punish”
показвам (pokazvam“I show”
изказвам (izkazvam)“I express”
наприказвам (naprikazvam)“get my fill of talking”

And here’s another example:

Bulgarian verb + pronunciationEnglish meaning
    пиша (pisha)  “I write”
впиша (vpisha)“I еnter” (like entering a name on a list)
напиша (napisha)“I write down”
допиша (dopisha)“I finish writing”
запиша (zapisha)“I note down”
надпиша (nadpisha“I inscribe”
изпиша (izpisha)“I cover with writing”
подпиша (podpisha)“I sign”
препиша (prepisha)“I transcribe”
припиша (pripisha)“I ascribe,” “I attribute”
отпиша (otpisha)“I unsubscribe”

You can make flashcards for these verb groups to memorize them easier.

Make Flashcards!

What is the Easiest Part of Learning Bulgarian?

It’s reasonable to start learning the easiest part of Bulgarian first: cognate words, or the ones that sound and look similar in English and Bulgarian. If you’ve learned the Bulgarian alphabet, you’ll see how easy it is to learn Bulgarian words that have a common origin with those in English.

Here are some examples of cognate words:

Bulgarian word + pronunciationEnglish meaning
студент (student)  “student”
идeя (eedeya)“idea”
банан (banan)“banana”
клас (klas)“class”
център (tsentar)“center”
сестра́ (sestra“sister”
хумор (humor)“humor”
проект (proyekt)“project”
филм (film)“film,” “movie”

Again, we recommend that you make flashcards of these cognates. We’ll be going over them again in section five.


3. I Want to Learn Bulgarian. Where Should I Start?

We’ve already mentioned that the best starting point for learning Bulgarian is to memorize the alphabet, and then make flashcards of cognate words. Here, we’ll give you some simple tips that will motivate you and help you achieve your desired Bulgarian fluency! 

Tip #1 – Make your own achievable schedule with pre-set goals.

Try to divide your learning into easy stages and set a specific period of time to study each new level. If you’re motivated enough to learn Bulgarian, you should set aside at least fifteen minutes a day to study. This is a good amount of time that will allow you to really learn something without interfering with your schedule. Regular learning is essential for your progress, so don’t be lazy by skipping a day or two!

Imagine your language learning as a wall that you have to build by adding bricks daily. Each day of study equals one more brick. But if you stop studying the language for a long period of time, it’s quite probable that some of your bricks will fall out and bring down the rest of the wall.

Build Your Language Wall by Adding Bricks to It on a Daily Basis!

Tip #2 – Make your learning fun!

There are a few ways to achieve this. For example, you can make your own flashcards and play a game with them, watch intriguing TV series in Bulgarian, learn about dates in Bulgarian, listen to popular Bulgarian songs, and the list goes on.

If there’s a topic you’re interested in, you can start by learning related Bulgarian vocabulary, doing research, and studying materials from Bulgarian sources.

Tip #3 – Find a Bulgarian friend!

One of the best ways to practice Bulgarian is to speak with a real Bulgarian. Find a Bulgarian friend to help you improve your conversational skills and achieve fluency faster. By speaking with him or her, you’ll remove your language barrier faster and increase your confidence, which is a surefire way to success.

Tip #4 – Review what you have learned so far!

It’s essential to review new vocabulary at least once a week until you get used to it. Your brain needs time to build solid roads in the new language, so you have to go through these new words often until they go from being tiny paths to being wide highways. 

Tip #5 – Don’t give up!

There will be moments when learning Bulgarian won’t be as easy and fun as you wish. You just need to overcome these challenges instead of giving up. Don’t be afraid of making mistakes, as mistakes will help you get better.

Here’s a motivational thought from Theodore Roosevelt: “Believe you can and you’re halfway there.” In Bulgarian, this is:

  • Ако вярвате, че можете, вече сте изминали половината път.
    (Ako vyarvate, che mozhete, veche ste izminali polovinata pat.)
Believe You Can and You're Halfway There!

4. Five Tips for New Bulgarian Learners

Want to learn Bulgarian easy and fast? BulgarianPod101 has some tips for new learners! Follow our advice, and you’ll learn to speak Bulgarian in no time.

Tip #1 – Do all five!

The five elements of language-learning are: watching, reading, listening, writing, and speaking. To improve your Bulgarian language skills, you need to advance in all of these elements. How can you do this?

  • Watching: Watch Bulgarian TV shows, Bulgarian movies, or Bulgarian news channels on a daily basis.
  • Reading: Read Bulgarian books in your favorite genre, articles, news, letters, etc.
  • Listening: You can listen to Bulgarian radio or even popular Bulgarian songs.
  • Writing: Write as many new words as possible, and try forming sentences with them.
  • Speaking: Don’t be afraid of speaking Bulgarian with your Bulgarian friend, in the shop, or wherever you go.

Tip #2 – Repeat, repeat, repeat…

In order to get used to the language’s rhythm, listen to new phrases and sentences over and over again until you start to recognize and understand the meaning. Try to imitate the native speaker as closely as possible.

Tip #3 – Perfect your pronunciation!

You can achieve some great results by using a voice-recording tool. It will allow you to listen to your pronunciation and compare it to that of a native speaker. This way, you can more easily recognize the sounds that you pronounce differently and fix them. 

Tip #4 – Take a dictionary wherever you go!

This is a great way to learn new words while waiting in line, drinking your coffee, or even while you’re out walking. This is a natural way to learn during your free time.

Tip #5 – Master recorded dialogues!

Whenever you listen to recorded dialogues by native speakers, pay extra attention. Study the lines, learn them by heart, and begin understanding how to reply to someone in everyday conversations. 

Another great way to learn Bulgarian is by using a Bulgarian app.

5. Why Don’t You Start Learning Bulgarian Right Away? (4 Practical Exercises)

You don’t have to wait any longer to start learning Bulgarian! Simply complete the following exercises, starting with the Bulgarian alphabet.

Exercise 1: Practice the Bulgarian Alphabet

Complete the table by filling in the English version of the following letters:

Bulgarian LettersEnglish Letters
Аа 
Бб
Дд 
Ее 
Зз
Кк 
Мм
Оо
Тт

That was easy, right? Now, let’s make things harder. Write the Bulgarian version of these English letters:

Bulgarian LettersEnglish Letters
 Gg
 Pp
 Ff
 Ll
 Uu (pronounced like “oo” in “tool”)
 Hh
 Ii (pronounced like “i” in “igloo”)
 Ss

The hardest part is below. Write the English versions of the following Bulgarian letters. (Note that the first three look like specific English letters, but are different.)

Bulgarian LettersEnglish Letters
Вв
Нн
Рр
Жж
Йй
Цц
Чч
Шш
Щщ
Ъъ
ь
Юю
Яя 

Exercise 2: Practice Reading

Now that you know the alphabet, it’s time to start reading. Read the following words out loud and check their pronunciation and meaning:

  • кокошка (kokoshka) – “hen”
  • октопод (oktopod) – “octopus”
  • врата (vrata) – “door”
  • къща (kаshta) – “house”

Now, let’s read some simple sentences:

  • Той отвори вратата.
    (Toy otvori vratata.)
    “He opened the door.”
  • Вратата на къщата е бяла.
    (Vratata na kashtata e byala.)
    “The house’s door is white.”
  • Вратата на къщата се отвори.
    (Vratata na kashtata se otvori.)
    “The house’s door opened.”
  • Кокошката влезе през вратата.
    (Kokoshkata vleze prez vratata.)
    “The hen came in through the door.”

Exercise 3: Practice Flashcards

If you’ve been following our guidelines, you should have about forty flashcards so far with nouns and verbs. If you haven’t made them yet, it’s time to write and review them now, before completing this exercise.

Find the following flashcards: студент, пиша, проект. Place them in a row in this order. Now, let’s write down a grammatically correct sentence.

  • Студентът пише проект.
    (Studentat pishe proekt.)
    “The student writes a project.”

Now, find these flashcards: човек, филм. Let’s write down a grammatically correct sentence.

  • Човекът гледа филм.
    (Chovekat gleda film.)
    “The man is watching a movie.”

Now, find these flashcards: мама, записвам, идея. Let’s write down a grammatically correct sentence.

  • Мама записва идея.
    (Mama zapisva ideya.)
    “Mom writes down an idea.”

Another great game with flashcards is to match each word with its English meaning.

Exercise 4: Introducing Yourself in Bulgarian

Let’s start with some simple sentences that you can use to introduce yourself:

  • Здравейте! Аз съм (your name).
    (Zdraveyte! Az sam)
    “Hello! I am (your name).”
  • А ти как се казваш?
    (A ti kak se kazvash?)
    “And what is your name?”
  • Приятно ми е да се запознаем.
    (Priyatno mi e da se zapoznaem.)
    “Nice to meet you.”
  • Откъде си?
    (Otkade si?)
    “Where are you from?”
  • Аз съм от (your country here).
    (Az sam ot)
    “I’m from (your country here).”

BulgarianPod101 has a list of the Bulgarian pronunciations of some countries. Check it out and fill in the blank with your country. 

In this ten-minute video, you can learn some other useful expressions that will help you introduce yourself in Bulgarian:

6. Why is BulgarianPod101 Great for Learning Bulgarian?

BulgarianPod101 is an inexhaustible source of materials, guides, and practical exercises that will help you learn and master the Bulgarian language. Our team of native Bulgarian professionals has prepared this and many other reviews and guides, many of which you can download or view for free. But in order to gain full access to all of our website’s features, sign up today and have seven days of complete access for free.

BulgarianPod101 even offers a free app that’s available for Android, iPhone, iPad, and Kindle Fire. In case this isn’t enough and you feel that you need professional guidance, you can choose your Bulgarian teacher from MyTeacher and he/she will help you learn Bulgarian in a way that works for you! 

Did you find this article helpful? Have we motivated you to start learning Bulgarian? We look forward to hearing from you and will help out the best we can!

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An Overview of the 10 Most Common Mistakes in Bulgarian

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There’s a Bulgarian saying that states:

  • Глупавият се учи от собствените си грешки, а умният – от грешките на другите! 
    Glupaviyat se uchi ot sobstvenite si greshki, a umniyat – ot greshkite na drugite!
    “The fool learns from his own mistakes, and the smart person learns from the mistakes of others!”

So why not become one of those smart people yourself? You can learn from the Bulgarian mistakes other learners have made, instead of repeating them and getting into some awkward situations.

BulgarianPod101 has prepared this detailed overview of the most common mistakes in the Bulgarian language, providing you with detailed explanations of rules, plenty of examples, and tips for avoiding these Bulgarian mistakes in your conversations with native speakers. This article will help you gain more confidence in your communication with Bulgarians!

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Beginner Vocabulary in Bulgarian Table of Contents
  1. Pronunciation Mistakes
  2. Vocabulary Word Mistakes
  3. Word Order Mistakes
  4. Grammar Mistakes
  5. Short and Long Definite Article
  6. Common Verb Tense Mistakes
  7. Semantic Mistakes
  8. Mistakes Involving Typical Bulgarian Expressions
  9. Embarrassing Mistakes
  10. Other Mistakes
  11. How BulgarianPod101 Can Help You

1. Pronunciation Mistakes

Here are some common pronunciation mistakes for Bulgarian-learners that you can start avoiding right now. Just study the following pronunciation rules:

Rule #1: The Bulgarian letter “P”

The Bulgarian letter “P” is always pronounced as a trilled English “R,” and never pronounced like the “R” in words like “far” or “father.”  

Bulgarians teach their children to pronounce this letter properly from an early age using this popular tongue-twister:

  • Рачо реже риба.
    Racho rezhe riba.
    “The crab is cutting the fish.”

Rule #2: Voiced and voiceless consonants in Bulgarian

In Bulgarian, each voiced consonant has a voiceless counterpart. There’s only one voiceless consonant that doesn’t have a voiced counterpart, which is the letter “Х.” Take a look at these voiced-voiceless pairs:

Voiced ConsonantsVoicelessConsonants
БП
ДТ
ГК
ВФ
ЖШ
ЗС
ДЗЦ
ДЖЧ
Х

It’s important to know them, because the voiced consonants are pronounced as voiceless when located at the end of a word. For example:

  • In the word нож (nosh), meaning “knife,” Ж is pronounced as Ш, as it becomes voiceless at the end of the word.
  • In the word град (grat), meaning “city,” Д is pronounced as Т, as it becomes voiceless at the end of the word.
  • In the word ръкав (rakaf), meaning “sleeve,” В is pronounced as Ф, as it becomes voiceless at the end of the word.

The so-called devoicing of the consonants in Bulgarian also occurs when there are two or three consonants bunched together and the final consonant is voiceless. This voiceless consonant makes all the others in the group sound voiceless, too. For example:

  • In the word дръжка (drashka), meaning “handle,” Ж is pronounced as Ш. This is because, in the pair ЖК, the final consonant is voiceless and assimilates the voiced consonant.
  • In the word градски (gratski), meaning “urban,” Д is pronounced as Т. This is because, in the cluster ДСК, the final consonant is voiceless and assimilates the voiced consonant Д.

Rule #3: Pronunciation of “A” at the end of a word

Another common Bulgarian error happens when foreigners try to pronounce the “A” sound at the end of a word. Remember that when a Bulgarian word ends in “A,” it’s pronounced like “Ъ,” unless it is a stressed syllable. For example:

  • In the word баба (baba), meaning “grandmother,” A is not pronounced like in the English word “father,” but more like the u in “ugly,” making the Bulgarian vowel Ъ.
  • In the word кокошка (kokoshka), meaning “hen,” A should be pronounced like the Bulgarian vowel Ъ.

But:

  • In the word баща (bashta), meaning “father,” A is pronounced like it is in the English word “father,” because the last A is stressed. However, the first A in this word is not stressed, and it will sound like Ъ.
  • In the word кола (kola), meaning “car,” A is pronounced like it is in the English word “father,” because the last A is stressed.

By mastering these Bulgarian pronunciation rules, you’ll really impress your Bulgarian interlocutor, as these are the niceties of the language that most Bulgarian-learners don’t know.

    → BulgarianPod101 offers you our Ultimate Bulgarian Pronunciation Guide, which can greatly help you improve your Bulgarian pronunciation and avoid some common Bulgarian pronunciation mistakes.

2. Vocabulary Word Mistakes

Paronyms in the Bulgarian language

There are many words in Bulgarian that are pronounced similarly to each other, but have different meanings. These words are called paronyms, and Bulgarian-learners must learn how to distinguish between them to avoid embarrassing situations. Here are a few examples of them:

  • жена (zhena) – “woman” vs. женя (zhenya) – “getting married”
  • коза (koza) – “goat” vs. коса (kosa) – “hair”
  • пица (pitsa) – “pizza” vs. птица (ptitsa) – “bird”
  • пипам (pipam) – “touch” vs. питам (pitam) – “ask” 

You might be able to imagine the confusion that might occur if you made the following compliment to a girl:

  • Каква красива коза имаш!
    Kakva krasiva koza imash!
    “What a beautiful goat you have!”

Instead of:

  • Каква красива коса имаш!
    Kakva krasiva kosa imash!
    “What beautiful hair you have!”
What a Beautiful Goat You Have!

Homonyms in the Bulgarian language

Another group of tricky words in Bulgarian are the homonyms, which are written and pronounced the same way, but have different meanings. Here are some examples for you:

  • син (sin) – “blue” vs. син (sin) – “son”
  • бал (bal) – “grades” vs. бал (bal) – “ball”
  • вила (vila) – “country house” vs. вила (vila) – “pitch-fork”

Usually, it’s easier to distinguish between these words in the context of a conversation. For example, if you meet someone who tells you:

  • Аз имам син и дъщеря.
    Az imam sin i dashterya.
    “I have a son and a daughter.”

It’s obvious that he isn’t talking about the color blue.

Further, if син (sin) is used as an adjective, it’s clear that it means “blue” and not a son. Here’s an example:

  • Моят панталон е син.
    Moyat pantalon e sin.
    “My pants are blue.”

3. Word Order Mistakes

Although Bulgarian word order is pretty flexible, there are some specific rules that should be followed when building Bulgarian sentences. Knowing these rules well will help you avoid some common mistakes in learning Bulgarian and enhance your communication with natives. These rules mainly have to do with the short form of the personal pronoun. Here are four rules with examples:

Rule #1: Never place the short form of the personal pronoun at the very beginning of the sentence.

Wrong:  Му е лошо. 
                Mu e losho.

Correct:  Лошо му е.
                 Losho mu e.
                 “He feels bad.”

Rule #2: When a sentence starts with a word other than a verb, the short form of the personal pronoun comes before the verb.

Wrong:     Какво боли те? 
                 Kakvo boli te?

Correct:  Какво те боли?
                 Какво те боли?
                 “Where do you feel the pain?”

Rule #3: When a sentence starts with a verb, the short form of the personal pronoun comes right after the verb.

Wrong:   Мe боли главата. 
                 Me boli glavata.

Correct:  Боли ме главата. 
                 Boli me glavata.
                 “I have a headache.”

There Are So Many Rules, That I’ve Got a Headache!

Rule #4: When a sentence is in the future tense, the short form of the personal pronoun comes right after “ще.”

Wrong:  Ще попитам го. 
                Shte popitam go.

Correct:  Ще го попитам.
                 Shte go popitam.
                 “I will ask him.”

4. Grammar Mistakes

There are a couple of things that Bulgarian-learners can keep in mind to easier understand and start applying grammar rules. Let’s examine them together to avoid the most common Bulgarian grammar mistakes.

English and Bulgarian cognates – nouns

Fortunately, Bulgarian and English have many cognates. These are words that sound similar in both languages because of their common etymological origin. Foreigners usually get used to these words faster than others. Such cognates include: fantasy, melody, concert, instrument, opera, theater, dramatic, and dynamic.

It’s easier to remember their Bulgarian form knowing that -Y in English turns into – ИЯ (ya) in Bulgarian.

  • “melody” – мелодия (melodiya)
  • “comedy” – комедия (komediya)
  • “history” – история (istoriya)

TRY IT YOURSELF

* Knowing this rule, try to make the Bulgarian forms of the following English words yourself:

  • fantasy 
  • agony

(The answers can be found at the end of this article.)

English and Bulgarian cognates – adjectives

Another rule to remember about cognates is related to adjectives. When the English adjective ends in – IC, its Bulgarian form most likely ends in -ЧЕН.

“academic – академичен (akademichen)
“dynamic” – динамичен (dinamichen)
“dramatic – драматичен (dramatichen)

TRY IT YOURSELF

* Knowing this rule, try to make the Bulgarian forms of the following English adjectives yourself:

  • fantastic
  • systematic
  • tragic

(The answers can be found at the end of this article.)

Bulgarian verb conjugation

To avoid many mistakes in Bulgarian grammar, learn Bulgarian verb conjugations and learn them well. Foreigners usually make these grammar mistakes because they aren’t familiar with Bulgarian verb conjugation. For example, they say:

Wrong:     Ние са от Америка.
                   Nie sa ot Amerika.

Instead of:

Correct:   Ние сме от Америка.
                   Nie sme ot Amerika.
                   “We are from America.”

Or:

Wrong:     Аз уморен.
                   Az umoren.

Instead of:

Correct:   Аз съм уморен.
                   Az sam umoren.
                   “I am tired.”

5. Short and Long Definite Articles

There is a definite article in Bulgarian that’s added to the end of a noun instead of before it. However, the masculine gender has two forms of definite articles: long (-ът, -ят) and short (-а, -я). The long form is used for a noun that’s the subject of a sentence, while the short form is used for nouns that are direct/indirect objects.

Foreigners often say:

Wrong: Жена седи на балкон. 
               Zhena sedi na balkon.

Following the English:
“A woman is sitting on a balcony.”

However, since жена in the sentence above is the subject of the sentence, the word should be given a long definite article, which is -та for feminine nouns. Since балкон is not a subject, but rather an indirect object, it should be given a short definite article.

Correct:   Жената седи на балкона.
                  Zhenata sedi na balkona.
                  “The woman sits on the balcony.”

Here’s another example:

Wrong:  Кораб отплава в 8 часа.
                Korab otplava v 8 chasa.

Correct:   Корабът отплава в 8 часа.
                  Korabat otplava v 8 chasa.
                  “The ship departed at 8:00 a.m.”

Кораб is the subject of the sentence, which is why it has to be used with a long definite article (-ът for masculine nouns).

The Rule for the Short and Long Definite Article in Bulgarian will Prevent Your Ship from Sinking!

6. Common Verb Tense Mistakes

A common mistake in Bulgarian involves using the incorrect verb tense, because foreigners often have trouble distinguishing between the past tenses. Take the past aorist tense, for example. Using an imperfective verb in a sentence indicates that an action has been made, but is not yet finished. 

  • Вчера писах едно писмо.
    Vchera pisah edno pismo.
    “I wrote a letter yesterday.”

However, if you use a perfective verb instead of imperfective, it implies that the action has been completed. 

  • Вчера написах едно писмо.
    Vchera napisah edno pismo.
    “I wrote a letter yesterday.”

This means that you wrote the entire letter yesterday.

A common verb tense error of Bulgarian-learners is to use present perfect in a sentence that actually requires the past aorist tense. For example:

Wrong: Вчера съм ходил на лекар.
               Vchera sam hodil na lekar.

Correct:   Вчера ходих на лекар.
                  Vchera hodih na lekar.
                  “I went to a doctor yesterday.”

The present perfect does not specify the exact time when the action took place in the past. Because the word вчера (vchera), meaning “yesterday,” implies that the action happened at a specific time, only the past aorist tense should be used.

TRY IT YOURSELF

* Knowing this rule, try to write the correct form of the following sentence, which is wrong:

Wrong: Миналата седмица съм бил на море.
               Minalata sedmitsa sam bil na more.
               “I was at sea last week.”

Correct:  

(The answer can be found at the end of this article.)

7. Semantic Mistakes

There are some Bulgarian words that share a common origin with a similar-sounding English word, but have a different meaning. For example, the Bulgarian word магазин (magazin) means “shop” rather than “magazine.”

So, it would be a mistake to say:

Wrong: Днес ще чета магазина.
               Dnes shte cheta magazina.
               “Today, I’m going to read the store.”

Correct:  Днес ще ходя до магазина за хляб.
                 Dnes shte hodya do magazina za hlyab.
                 “Today, I’m going to the store for bread.”

Or:

Correct:  Днес ще чета списание.
                 Dnes shte cheta spisanie.
                 “Today, I’m going to read a magazine.”

Another example is the Bulgarian word сок (sok), which in English doesn’t mean “sock,” but “juice.”

Correct:  Искам да пия сок от портокал.
                 Iskam da piya sok ot portokal.
                 “I want to drink orange juice.”

The commonly used English word “shop” in Bulgarian refers to a member of an ethnic group: шоп. So, pay attention when you use these words in Bulgarian.

Take a Cup of Fresh Juice while You Study the Bulgarian Word СОК!

8. Mistakes Involving Typical Bulgarian Expressions

Often, foreigners struggle to understand some of the typical Bulgarian expressions that are quite common in daily life. 

When someone tells you that you’ve “waded the onions,” which sounds like сгази лука (sgazi luka), this means that you have gotten yourself into trouble.

When someone wants to tell you that something will never happen, it will sound like когато ми цъфнат налъмите (kogato mi tsafnat nalamite), which is literally translated as “when my clogs blossom.” They may also opt to use: на кукуво лято (na kukuvo lyato), which is literally translated as “on a cuckoo’s summer.”

When someone “sends you to find green caviar,” or пращам те за зелен хайвер (prashtam te za zelen hayver), this means that he tries to trick you.

One more funny expression in Bulgarian culture is to say that someone is “naked water,” which in Bulgarian sounds like гола вода (gola voda). This means that the person is bad at something.

You Don’t Have to be гола вода Naked Water in Bulgarian Language!

9. Embarrassing Mistakes

When talking to Bulgarians, there’s another kind of mistake you need to avoid. This is a mistake that doesn’t necessarily involve semantics, grammar, or vocabulary, but may be considered offensive to native Bulgarians. 

For example, asking a Bulgarian when the language will adopt the Latin script instead of using the Russian alphabet could certainly be taken the wrong way. Bulgarians are very proud of their Cyrillic alphabet—which is not Russian, but was introduced to the First Bulgarian empire in the ninth century AD. Bulgarians celebrate the creation of their alphabet on a national holiday each year on May 24. 

Another embarrassing situation would be to mistake someone’s name. Be careful when you pronounce a person’s name, as this is the name by which the person identifies himself. Carefully listen to the proper pronunciation of your interlocutor’s name, and if needed, ask him to repeat it for you instead of saying it incorrectly. 

There are many names in Bulgarian that have a specific meaning, so be sure to pronounce the name correctly!

  • Аз съм Мирослава.
    Az sam Miroslava.
    “I am Miroslava.”

In Bulgarian, this name is composed of two words: мир (mir), which currently means “peacе,” but in ancient Bulgarian meant “world”; and слава (slava), which means “fame.” So the name Мирослава means “the world’s fame.”

If you get the name wrong, it might change its meaning. For example:

  • Здравей, Морислава.
    Zdravey, Morislava.
    “Hello, Morislava.”

In Bulgarian, the word мори means “to exterminate,” so the meaning of this beautiful Bulgarian name might turn into “exterminate the fame,” which could be quite embarrassing for both parties.

Is Your Name Miroslava or Morislava?

10. Other Mistakes

BulgarianPod101 has gathered for you a wide variety of Bulgarian mistakes, but here we’re going to review one more mistake, related to the politeness level. English-speakers find it difficult to distinguish between the different forms in Bulgarian. Here’s an overview:

When you speak to a family member, close friend, or a person younger than you, you can use the informal form “ти” along with a verb in the singular form: 

Informal:    Ти работиш ли?
                     Ti rabotish li?
                     “Do you work?”

When you speak to an elder person, a stranger, or your boss, you need to use the formal form “Вие” along with a verb in the plural form: 

Formal:   Вие работите ли?
                 Vie rabotite li?
                 “Do you work?”

TRY IT YOURSELF

* Knowing this rule, try to turn this formal question into an informal one:

Formal: Как се казвате?
               Kak se kazvate?
               “What is your name?”

Informal:  

(The answer can be found at the end of this article.)

11. How BulgarianPod101 Can Help You

BulgarianPod101 prepared this detailed overview of the ten most common mistakes in Bulgarian to help you overcome your language barriers, and to encourage you to start conversations with Bulgarians. The most important thing to remember is to never give up because of the mistakes you make. The more you practice, the better you will become. Be aware that every beginning is difficult. 

If you don’t feel confident in your ability to avoid all of these common Bulgarian mistakes by yourself, you can find personal guidance from our MyTeacher service. Your Bulgarian language teacher will guide you step-by-step through the speaking process and will help you build your confidence.

Hopefully, you’ve enjoyed this detailed article. We would appreciate your feedback about it! Please, let us know in the comments whether you found the exercises easy or difficult, and we’ll help you out the best we can. 

And now, it’s time to check your answers!

Answers to Section 4

“fantasy” – фантазия (fantaziya)
“agony” – агония (agoniya)

“fantastic” – фантастичен (fantastichen)
“systematic” – систематичен (sistematichen)
“tragic” –  трагичен (tragichen)

Answers to Section 6

Wrong: Миналата седмица съм бил на море.
               Minalata sedmitsa sam bil na more.
               “I was at sea last week.”

Correct:  Миналата седмица бях на море.
                Minalata sedmitsa biah na more.

Answers to Section 10

Formal: Как се казвате?
               Kak se kazvate?
               “What is your name?”

Informal:  Как се казваш?
                  Kak se kazvash?
                  “What is your name?”

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Beginner Vocabulary in Bulgarian

An Overview of the Top 10 Bulgarian Questions and Answers

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Bulgarian people are helpful and friendly. Foreigners who visit or live in Bulgaria will find that the local people are more than willing to enter into contact with them and offer their assistance. As long as you know the basic Bulgarian phrases and questions, you’ll be able to start conversations and make friends.

This comprehensive review will acquaint you with the most common conversation starters in the form of easy questions and answers in Bulgarian. Knowing these will make your communication with native speakers much smoother, and being able to ask basic questions in Bulgarian will also help you learn specific information about your interlocutor or surroundings. 

This will give you a great advantage over other foreigners who live in Bulgaria, as you’ll gain many more opportunities to communicate with natives and fit in with the local culture.

BulgarianPod101 is your guide in this learning journey, and we recommend that you study this detailed review before you travel to Bulgaria!

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Beginner Vocabulary in Bulgarian Table of Contents
  1. Introduction to the Top 10 Bulgarian Questions and Answers
  2. What’s your name?
  3. Where are you from?
  4. Where do you live?
  5. How long have you been studying Bulgarian?
  6. Have you been to Bulgaria before?
  7. What do you do?
  8. Do you like Bulgarian food?
  9. How are you?
  10. What’s wrong?
  11. How much is it?
  12. Make Conversation with What You’ve Learned
  13. How BulgarianPod101 Can Help You

1. Introduction to the Top 10 Bulgarian Questions and Answers

Before you learn how to build questions in Bulgarian, you need to know the Bulgarian question words. These are words that usually come at the beginning of the question, and are used to form a variety of questions. In the following table is a Bulgarian question words list, and each word is accompanied by a sample question that uses it:

What

Example:
What are you doing?
Какво…?
(Kakvo)

Какво правиш?
(Kakvo pravish?)
How

Example:
How are you?
Как…?
(Kak)

Как си?
(Kak si?)
Who

Example:
Who are you?
Кой…?
(Koy)

Кой си ти?
(Koy si ti?)
Where

Example:
Where are you from?
Къде…?
(Kade)

От къде си?
(Ot kаde si?)
When

Example:
When did you arrive?
Кога…?
(Koga)

Кога пристигна?
(Koga pristigna?)
Why

Example:
Whу are you in Bulgaria?
Защо…?
(Zashto)

Защо си в България?
(Zashto si v Bаlgariya?)

This guide will also acquaint you with some of the most popular traditional Bulgarian meals, and teach you many Bulgarian words and phrases you’ll need to introduce and describe yourself.

    → If you can’t wait, you can start right away with our list of twenty common Bulgarian words for occupations. Find out how to say your occupation in Bulgarian and study this guide so you can talk about it in conversations.

Now we think you’re ready to learn the most common Bulgarian questions and answers! 

2. What’s your name?

First Encounter

This is usually the first question you’ll get when meeting new people. So let’s learn how to ask it in Bulgarian, and how to give a proper answer.

  • Как се казваш?
    Kak se kazvash?
    “What’s your name?”

In case you would like to ask this question in a formal style, or ask several people at once, you can say:

  • Как се казвате?
    Kak se kazvate?

Here’s how to respond to it:

  • Казвам се Джон.
    Kazvam se Dzhon.
    “My name is John.”
  • Казвам се Кейт.
    Kazvam se Keit.
    “My name is Kate.”

3. Where are you from?

Bulgarians easily notice if the person they’re speaking with is a foreigner, usually due to the person’s accent or appearance. So the next question you’ll probably get is:

  • От къде си?
    Ot kade si?
    “Where are you from?”

The formal or plural style will sound like this:

  • От къде сте?
    Ot kade ste?
    “Where are you from?”

And here’s how to answer:

  • Аз съм от Испания.
    Az sаm ot Ispaniya.
    “I am from Spain.”
  • Ние сме от Англия.
    Nie sme ot Angliya.
    “We are from England.”

Woman Pointing to the Globe

4. Where do you live?

Many people will be curious to learn where you live now, so the next question in Bulgarian you should expect is:

  • Къде живееш?
    Kade zhiveesh?
    “Where do you live?”

If you’re just in Bulgaria for a short vacation, you can answer:

  • Живея в Лондон.
    Zhiveya v London.
    “I live in London.”

Or: 

  • Живея в Сао Пауло.
    Zhiveya v Sao Paulo.
    “I live in Sao Paulo.”

But maybe you’ve already made the move to live in Bulgaria. In that case, your answer could be:

  • Живея в София.
    Zhiveya v Sofia.
    “I live in Sofia.”

5. How long have you been studying Bulgarian?

Introducing Yourself

Your new Bulgarian friend might be amazed with your level of language proficiency, so he or she might ask you:

  • Колко време си учил български?
    Kolko vreme si uchil balgarski?
    “How long have you been studying Bulgarian?”

Or:

  • От колко време учиш български?
    Ot kolko vreme uchish balgarski?
    “How long have you been studying Bulgarian?”

You can answer by simply stating the amount of time, or by giving a complete sentence:

  • Един месец.
    Edin mesets.
    “One month.”
  • Уча български от един месец.
    Ucha balgarski ot edin mesets.
    “I have been studying Bulgarian for one month.”

Or:

  • Половин година.
    Polovin godina.
    “Half a year.”
  • Уча български от половин година.
    Ucha balgarski ot polovin godina.
    “I have been studying Bulgarian for half a year.”

Do you want to give a more specific answer? Try something like this: 

  • Уча български от месец май тази година.
    Ucha bаlgarski ot mesets may tazi godina.
    “I have been studying Bulgarian since May this year.”

BulgarianPod101 has a lesson all about the names of months in Bulgarian. Check it out

6. Have you been to Bulgaria before?

Your interlocutor might be curious to find out whether you’ve been to Bulgaria before, or if this is your first time. So he or she might ask:

  • Бил ли си в България преди?
    Bil li si v Balgariya predi?
    “Have you been to Bulgaria before?”

Or:

  • За първи път ли си в България?
    Za parvi pat li si v Balgariya?
    “Are you in Bulgaria for the first time?”

Here are some possible answers:

  • Аз съм за първи път в България.
    Az sam za parvi pat v Balgariya.
    “I am in Bulgaria for the first time.”
  • Преди две години също бях в България.
    Predi dve godini sŭshto byah v Bŭlgariya.
    “Two years ago, I was also in Bulgaria.”
  • Бил съм в България и преди.
    Bil sam v Balgariya i predi.
    “I’ve been to Bulgaria before.”

7. What do you do?

If you’re living in Bulgaria, or visiting for an extended period of time, your interlocutor might want to know why. Bulgarians won’t ask this directly, though, as it might be considered offensive to ask “Why are you here?” or Защо си тук? (Zashto si tuk?). Instead, they may ask about your occupation:

  • Какво работиш?
    Kakvo rabotish?
    “What do you do?”
What Do You Do?

Another way to ask this Bulgarian question is:

  • С какво се занимаваш?
    S kakvo se zanimavash?
    “What do you do?”

You can answer with both your occupation and your reason for being in Bulgaria.

  • Аз съм писател и дойдох да пиша книга за България.
    Az sam pisatel i doydoh da pisha kniga za Balgariya.
    “I am a writer and I came to write a book about Bulgaria.”
  • Аз съм бизнесмен и искам да отворя бизнес в България.
    Az sam biznesmen i iskam da otvorya biznes v Balgariya.
    “I am a businessman and I want to open a business in Bulgaria.”
  • Аз съм пенсионер и не работя.
    Az sam pensioner i ne rabotya.
    “I’m a retiree and I don’t work.”

You can learn more words for jobs and occupations in Bulgarian here, and listen to their proper Bulgarian pronunciation.

8. Do you like Bulgarian food?

As you develop closer relationships with your Bulgarian friends, they might invite you to their home for dinner. Of course, you wouldn’t want to miss that chance! But first, they might ask you the following question:

  • Харесваш ли българска храна?
    Haresvash li balgarska hrana?
    “Do you like Bulgarian food?”

This is your opportunity to tell them what you like the most, and hopefully, they’ll prepare your favorite Bulgarian meal for you. So you can answer this way:

  • Да, особено харесвам баница.
    Da, osobeno haresvam banitsa.
    “Yes, I particularly like banitsa.”
  • Да, особено харесвам пататник.
    Da, osobeno haresvam patatnik.
    “Yes, I particularly like patatnik.”
Traditional Bulgarian Meals

9. How are you?

Once you’ve gotten close with someone, this is probably the first question they’ll ask whenever you meet up:

  • Как си?
    Kak si?
    “How are you?”

There are different ways to answer this question in Bulgarian. Let’s see some of them:

  • Добре съм, благодаря!
    Dobre sam, blagodarya!
    “I’m fine, thanks!”
  • Отлично, благодаря!
    Otlichno, blagodarya!
    “Perfect, thanks!”
  • Не се чувствам добре. 
    Ne se chuvstvam dobre.
    “I’m not feeling well.”
  • Уморен съм и ми се спи.
    Umoren sam i mi se spi.
    “I’m tired and sleepy.”

If you would like to learn some more answers to this question, we have you covered!

10. What’s wrong?

If you’re speaking with a friend who tells you that he or she doesn’t feel good, then you should ask:

  • Какво има?
    Kakvo ima?
    “What’s wrong?”

Or: 

  • Какво не е наред?
    Kakvo ne e nared?
    “What’s wrong?”

Then, you might receive one of the following answers:

  • Болен съм.
    Bolen sam.
    “I’m sick.”
  • Разтревожен съм.
    Raztrevozhen sam.
    “I’m worried.”
  • Гладен съм.
    Gladen sam.
    “I’m hungry.”
I'm Hungry!

11. How much is it?

Now, let’s see what you need to ask when you’re in the market. Even if you don’t know the name of every product in Bulgarian, knowing how to ask for the price is always going to be helpful. 

  • Колко струва това?
    Kolko struva tova?
    “How much is it?”

Or:

  • Каква е цената на това?
    Kakva e tsenata na tova?
    “What is the price of this?”

And to understand the answer, you’ll have to learn the Bulgarian numbers first. The answer could be something like:

  • Два лева.
    Dva leva.
    “Two leva.”
  • Един и петдесет.
    Edin i petdeset.
    “One fifty.”
  • Пет лева за килограм.
    Pet leva za kilogram.
    “Five leva per kilogram.”

12. Make Conversation with What You’ve Learned

Here’s a quick exercise to test your knowledge. Imagine that you meet a Bulgarian man for the first time and need to introduce yourself. Try filling in the blanks with your responses, and scroll to the end to check your answers! 

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 

    – Здравей, как се казваш?
    – ____________________

(Your answer here. Reply and ask about his name as well.)

    – Аз съм Петър. От къде си?
    – ____________________

(Your answer here)

    – А къде живееш?
    – ___________________

(To answer this question, read Peter’s next words.)

    – В Пловдив!? И аз живея в Пловдив, но съм от Варна. А какво работиш.
    – ___________________

(Your answer here. Ask Peter about his occupation, too.)

    – Аз съм брокер. Работя за една пловдивска фирма за недвижими имоти. Търсиш ли да закупиш имот в България?
    – ___________________

(Your answer here. Politely decline his offer.)

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 

If you don’t understand everything or are struggling to write your answers, don’t worry. You can check the answers at the end of the article.

13. How BulgarianPod101 Can Help You

BulgarianPod101 has prepared this detailed review of the top ten Bulgarian questions and answers to help you start your face-to-face communication with Bulgarian people. We believe that by studying this guide, you’ll become much more confident in making friends in Bulgaria. Since practice is the best possible teacher, try to start practicing what you’ve learned right away.

If you still need personal guidance, BulgarianPod101 can help you by offering you a private Bulgarian language teacher with our MyTeacher service. This language expert will uncover all the secrets of Bulgarian grammar and lead you to language-learning success.

Now, it’s time to check your answers. Please let us know in the comments whether the exercise was easy or difficult for you, and whether you were able to understand the Bulgarian sentences or not. Also let us know how you feel about this review. Did you find it helpful? We look forward to hearing from you and will help out the best we can! 

Answers to Section 12 Exercise – Make a Conversation

    – Здравей, как се казваш?
    Zdravey, kak se kazvash?
    “Hello, what is your name?”
    – Здравей, аз съм Джон. А ти как се казваш?  (Place your name in place of Джон.)
    Zdravey, az sam Dzhon. A ti kak se kazvash?
    “Hi, I’m John. And what is your name?”

(Your answer here. Reply and ask his name as well.)

    – Аз съм Петър. От къде си?
    Az sam Petar. Ot kade si?
    “I’m Peter. Where are you from?”
    – Аз съм от Англия. (Place your country in place of Англия.)
    Az sam ot Angliya.
    “I’m from England.”

(Your answer here)

    – А къде живееш?
    A kade zhiveesh?
    “And where do you live?”
    – Аз живея в Пловдив. 
    Az zhiveya v Plovdiv.
    “I live in Plovdiv.”

(To answer this question, read Peter’s next words.)

    – В Пловдив!? И аз живея в Пловдив, но съм от Варна. А какво работиш?
    V Plovdiv!? I az zhiveya v Plovdiv, no sam ot Varna. A kakvo rabotish?
    “In Plovdiv!? I live in Plovdiv too, but I’m from Varna. And what do you do?”
    – Аз съм бизнесмен. А ти? (Place your occupation in place of бизнесмен.)
    Az sam biznesmen. A ti?
    “I’m a businessman. And you?”

(Your answer here. Ask Peter about his occupation, too.)

    – Аз съм брокер. Работя за една пловдивска фирма за недвижими имоти. Търсиш ли да закупиш имот в България?
    Az sam broker. Rabotya za edna plovdivska firma za nedvizhimi imoti. Tarsish li da zakupish imot v Balgariya?
    “I’m a broker. I work for a Plovdiv real estate company. Are you looking to buy a property in Bulgaria?”
    – Не, благодаря.
    Ne, blagodarya.
    “No, thanks.”

(Your answer here. Politely decline his offer.)

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Beginner Vocabulary in Bulgarian

A Speak Freely Guide – Top 10 Bulgarian Sentence Patterns

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Learning the most frequently used language patterns is one of the easiest ways to start speaking that language. As a Bulgarian language learner, you’ll find it very beneficial to learn the most popular Bulgarian sentence patterns and structures. This knowledge will provide you with many advantages:

  • You can skip learning many tedious grammar rules that now seem impossible to learn.
  • You can start taking part in Bulgarian conversations and feel more confident in your language skills.
  • You’ll be able to quickly figure out which of these ten sentence patterns in Bulgarian to use in any situation.
  • You’ll be able to generate hundreds of natural sentences on your own. (And that’s really worth all the effort, right?)
Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Beginner Vocabulary in Bulgarian Table of Contents
  1. Becoming a Bulgarian Sentence Builder
  2. Top Ten Bulgarian Sentence Patterns
  3. Practice Time: What You Have Learned?
  4. How BulgarianPod101 Can Help You?

1. Becoming a Bulgarian Sentence Builder

Imagine that you’re a builder, and your task is to build constructions of different sizes and designs on a daily basis. It sounds challenging, right? Well, building sentences in a foreign language can be just as challenging without the right guidance.

Imagine that You Are a Bulgarian Sentence Builder

Fortunately, BulgarianPod101 is aware of your struggles in correctly building common Bulgarian sentence patterns, and we’re here to teach you how to form sentences in Bulgarian. By learning the following Bulgarian sentence patterns, you’ll become a skillful builder of Bulgarian sentences. In fact, with BulgarianPod101, learning how to do this can be very exciting and intriguing. 

In this article, you’ll also learn when to use these ten patterns, how to use them correctly, and how to make friends with Bulgarians. Moreover, you’ll have the chance to practice on-the-go, so take a piece of paper and a pen or pencil right now. 

So, what are you waiting for? Put on your builder’s helmet and let’s start!

2. Top 10 Bulgarian Sentence Patterns

Sentence Patterns

To keep things simple, we’ll look at these ten Bulgarian sentence patterns starting with the easiest and ending with the more complicated ones. Study them and try to practice as soon as you get acquainted with each pattern.

Bulgarian Sentence Pattern #1: Linking Two Nouns: A is B

Two Patterns for Presentation

The pattern for this kind of sentence in Bulgarian is great for making introductions or presentations. It allows you to say that one noun is another noun. Let’s see some examples:

  • Аз съм учител.
    Az sаm uchitel.
    “I am a teacher.”
  • Иван е лекар.
    Ivan e lekar.
    “Ivan is a doctor.”

As you can see, this basic pattern is the same as its counterpart in English. Now, let’s see some examples of how it may be used in daily conversations:

  • Това е къща.
    Tova e kashta.
    “This is a house.”
  • Онова е магазин.
    Onova e magazin.
    “That is a shop.”

*TRY IT YOURSELF*

Try to make a simple sentence on your own by translating the following sentences:

This is Anton. He is a student.

Write your answers down, and at the end of this guide you can check if you’ve translated them correctly.

Adding an Adjective

As you can see in the examples below, the position of the adjective in Bulgarian is the same as in English:

  • Аз съм строг учител.
    Az sаm strog uchitel.
    “I am a strict teacher.”
  • Иван е добър лекар.
    Ivan e dobar lekar.
    “Ivan is a good doctor.”

Adding a Pronoun

  • Юлия е моят учител.
    Yulia e moyat uchitel.
    “Julia is my teacher.”
  • Това е нашата къща.
    Tova e nashata kashta.
    “This is our house.”

Pronoun and an Adjective

To make this pattern complete, let’s add both a pronoun and an adjective to the “A is B” pattern.

  • Юлия е моят нов учител.
    Yulia e moyat nov uchitel.
    “Julia is my new teacher.”
  • Иван е наш добър приятел.
    Ivan e nash dobar priyatel.
    “Ivan is our good friend.”

*TRY IT YOURSELF*

Now, practice what you’ve learned so far by translating the following sentence:

Anton is a good student and my close friend.

If you can cope with this extended sentence, you’ve learned the pattern “A is B.” This means it’s time to move on to the second Bulgarian sentence pattern.

Bulgarian Sentence Pattern #2: Using Adjectives to Describe – A is [Adjective]

The “A is [adjective]” pattern is used for describing someone or something using adjectives. It’s also especially useful when you want to give compliments. Let’s see some Bulgarian language sentences using this pattern below.

Giving compliments using the “A is [adjective]” pattern

  • Ти си красива!
    Ti si krasiva.
    “You are beautiful.”

And to make your compliment to a lady even more kind, let’s add some more words:

  • Ти си много красива тази вечер!
    Ti si mnogo krasiva tazi vecher.
    “You are very beautiful tonight.”

Let’s consider two compliments for a man:

  • Ти си много силен!
    Ti si mnogo silen.
    “You are very strong!”
  • Ти си много смел!
    Ti si mnogo smel.
    “You are very brave.”

Using the “A is [adjective]” pattern for description

Now, here’s an example of a simple Bulgarian sentence pattern for giving descriptions. You can confidently use this sentence when someone presents you with a flower.

  • Това цвете е прекрасно!
    Tova tsvete e prekrasno.
    “This flower is wonderful.”
This Flower Is Wonderful!

*TRY IT YOURSELF*

It’s time for you to try this pattern on your own. Translate the following sentence into Bulgarian for both sexes:

You are awesome!

Bulgarian Sentence Pattern #3: Expressing “Want” – I Want (to)…

When to avoid using “I want” in Bulgarian

Using Bulgarian phrases like “I want” is considered impolite in the following cases:

You’re in the market and you see a wonderful apple that you wish to buy, but the old lady in front of you takes it first. In that case, it would be rude to say:

  • Искам тази ябълка!
    Iskam tazi yabalka!
    “I want this apple!”

You’re in the theater, but your seat is next to the door. Then, someone enters and leaves the door open. It’s not polite to say:

  • Искам да затвориш вратата!
    Iskam da zatvorish vratata!
    “I want you to close the door!”

You’ll learn how to properly react in both of these situations in Bulgarian Sentence Pattern #6.

How to safely use “I want” in Bulgarian

There are many situations when you can safely use “I want” and “I want to.” Here are some examples:

  • Искам да стана лекар!
    Iskam da stana lekar.
    “I want to become a doctor.”
  • Искам да направя другите хора щастливи.
    Iskam da napravya drugite hora shtastlivi.
    “I want to make other people happy.”
  • Искам да говоря на български език.
    Iskam da govorya na balgarski ezik.
    “I want to speak the Bulgarian language.”

Fortunately, BulgarianPod101 is here to help and make your wish come true!

If your boyfriend calls you and asks: “Do you want to go out with me tonight?” You can just say: “I do.” Here’s how this conversation would sound in Bulgarian:

  • Искаш ли да излезеш с мен тази вечер?
    Iskash li da izlezesh s men tazi vecher?
    “Do you want to go out with me tonight?”
  • Искам!
    Iskam.
    “I do.”
Go Out with Me Tonight!

And if you love someone, you can say to him:

  • Искам да бъда твоя!
    Iskam da bada tvoya!
    “I want to be yours!”

*TRY IT YOURSELF*

It’s time for you to try this pattern on your own. Translate the following sentence into Bulgarian:

I want to ask a question.

Bulgarian Sentence Pattern #4: Expressing “Need” – I Need (to)… / I Have to…

Some of the most useful Bulgarian phrases and sentences are those for expressing your needs, and this is especially true when you’re in a foreign country. Here are some simple Bulgarian sentences for expressing the most common needs. You can memorize them, as you never know when you may find yourself in need.

  • Имам нужда от помощ.
    Imam nuzhda ot pomosht.
    “I need help.”
  • Имам нужда от химикалка.
    Imam nuzhda ot himikalka.
    “I need a pen.”
  • Трябва да отида до тоалетната.
    Tryabva da otida do toaletnata.
    “I need to go to the toilet.”
  • Трябва да тръгвам.
    Tryabva da trаgvam.
    “I have to go.”
  • Зле ми е. Имам нужда от лекар.
    Zle mi e. Imam nuzhda ot lekar.
    “I feel bad. I need a doctor.”
  • Трябва да науча български език.
    Tryabva da naucha balgarski ezik.
    “I need to learn the Bulgarian language.”

A hint: To ensure that you know these sentences, just write the Bulgarian translation of the following English sentences without looking at the answers. You can repeat this exercise until you get used to them, and know them perfectly.

I need to learn the Bulgarian language.

I need to go to the toilet.

I need help.

I feel bad. I need a doctor.

I have to go.

I need a pen.

Bulgarian Sentence Pattern #5: Expressing “Like” – I Like (to)…

In Bulgarian, there are three ways to express your likes. Bulgarians use the following words for this: харесвам (haresvam), обичам (obicham), and обожавам (obozhavam). They mean “I like,” “I love,” and “I adore,” respectively. Here are some examples:

харесвам (haresvam), “I like”

  • Харесвам този цвят! 
    Haresvam tozi tsvyat!
    “I like this color!”
  • Харесва ми да готвя. 
    Haresva mi da gotvya.
    “I like to cook.”

обичам (obicham), “I love”

  • Обичам да гледам залеза. 
    Obicham da gledam zaleza.
    “I love watching the sunset.”
  • Обичам да се разхождам вечер.
    Obicham da se razhozhdam vecher.
    “I like to go for a walk in the evening.”

обожавам (obozhavam), “I adore”

  • Обожавам този сладкиш! 
    Obozhavam tozi sladkish!
    “I love this cake!”
  • Обожавам да ходя на сладкарница! 
    Obozhavam da hodya na sladkarnitsa!
    “I love going to the pastry shop!”

*TRY IT YOURSELF*

It’s time for you to try this pattern on your own. Translate the following sentence into Bulgarian:

I love to drink orange juice.

Bulgarian Sentence Pattern #6: Politely Asking Someone to Do Something – Please…

This is another very important Bulgarian sentence pattern, since you don’t want to sound rude or commanding when you speak to Bulgarians. You can probably remember the sentence: Искам да затвориш вратата! from Bulgarian Sentence Pattern #3: “I want.” How can you ask this more politely?

You have two options:

  • Моля, затворете вратата! 
    Molya, zatvorete vratata!
    “Close the door, please!”
  • Мога ли да Ви помоля да затворите вратата? 
    Moga li da Vi pomolya da zatvorite vratata?
    “May I ask you to close the door?”

And what about the apple from Bulgarian Sentence Pattern #3?

May I Have This Apple, Please?

You can use the following sentence:

Може ли тази ябълка, моля? 
Mozhe li tazi yabаlka, molya?
“May I have this apple, please?”

*TRY IT YOURSELF*

Now, imagine that you’re in the market and there’s a list of products that you have to buy. Let’s see how you will ask the seller about each of these products. We’ll do the first two for you, and you have to make the rest by yourself.

Your shopping list contains:

  • Един килограм картофи (Edin kilogram kartofi), “One kilogram of potatoes”
  • Два хляба (Dva hlyaba), “Two loaves of bread”
  • Един килограм моркови (Edin kilogram morkovi), “One kilogram of carrots”
  • Един пакет сол (Edin paket sol), “One salt packet”
  • Две кисели млека (Dve kiseli mleka), “Two yogurts”

Examples:

  • Може ли един килограм картофи, моля? 
    Mozhe li еdin kilogram kartofi, molya?
    “May I have one kilogram of potatoes, please?”
  • Може ли два хляба, моля? 
    Mozhe li dva hlyaba, molya?
    “May I have two loaves of bread, please?”

Now, write the next three sentences, using the Bulgarian sentence pattern given above. 

    → To enhance your shopping experience at a Bulgarian boutique, please watch the following short video:

Bulgarian Sentence Pattern #7: Drawing Attention – Excuse Me…

There will be situations when you need to ask someone for something, or when someone else asks you a question on the street. To draw someone’s attention the right way, use Извинете (izvinete), which means “excuse me.” Here are a few basic Bulgarian sentences that begin with this phrase:

  • Извинете, колко е часът? 
    Izvinete, kolko e chasat?
    “Excuse me, what’s the time?”
  • Извинете, може ли да ми помогнете? 
    Izvinete, mozhe li da mi pomognete?
    “Excuse me, can you help me?”
  • Извинете, това място свободно ли е? 
    Izvinete, tova myasto svobodno li e?
    “Excuse me, is this seat free?”
  • Извинете, къде се намира катедралата? 
    Izvinete, kade se namira katedralata?
    “Excuse me, where is the cathedral?”
  • Извинете, това Ваше ли е? 
    Izvinete, tova Vashe li e?
    “Excuse me, is that yours?”
  • Извинете, говорите ли английски? 
    Izvinete, govorite li angliyski?
    “Excuse me, do you speak English?”
    → To gain deeper insight on the last question and how to reply to it properly, please watch the following video:

*TRY IT YOURSELF*

 Now, let’s combine the patterns # 6 and # 7. Translate these sentences into Bulgarian:

Excuse me, can I close the door?

Excuse me, may I have one loaf of bread?

Sentence Components

Bulgarian Sentence Pattern #8: Asking for Information About Something – What…

In this section, we’ll cover how to use the past, present, and future tenses when asking for information. But let’s first start with the most common question: “What is this?”

  • Какво е това?
    Kakvo e tova?
    “What is this?”

Now, let’s ask about the weather today, yesterday, and tomorrow:

  • Какво е времето днес?
    Kakvo e vremeto dnes?
    “What is the weather today?”
  • Какво беше времето вчера?
    Kakvo beshe vremeto vchera?
    “What was the weather yesterday?”
  • Какво ще бъде времето утре?
    Kakvo shte bade vremeto utre?
    “What will the weather be like tomorrow?”

Let’s ask some more questions with “what”:

  • Какво обичаш да ядеш?
    Kakvo obichash da yadesh?
    “What do you like to eat?”
  • Какво обичаш да носиш?
    Kakvo obichash da nosish?
    “What do you like to wear?”
  • Какво да направя за теб?
    Kakvo da napravya za teb?
    “What can I do for you?”

*TRY IT YOURSELF*

Use the weather examples to translate the following three sentences into Bulgarian:

What is your mood today?

What was your mood yesterday?

What will be your mood tomorrow?

Bulgarian Sentence Pattern #9: Asking About Time – When is…?

In your conversations with Bulgarians, you’ll often need to ask questions about time. Here are some examples:

  • Кога си роден?
    Koga si roden?
    “When were you born?”
  • Кога е рожденият ти ден?
    Koga e rozhdeniyat ti den?
    “When is your birthday?”
  • Кога ще се видим пак?
    Koga shte se vidim pak?
    “When will I see you again?”
  • Кога е срещата ни?
    Koga e sreshtata ni?
    “When is our meeting?”
  • Кога пристига самолетът?
    Koga pristiga samoletаt?
    “When is the plane arriving?”

*TRY IT YOURSELF*

 Use the last question as a model to translate the following three sentences into Bulgarian:

When is the train arriving?

When is their car arriving?

When is the motorcycle arriving?

Bulgarian Sentence Pattern #10: Asking About Location or Position – Where is…?

The last Bulgarian sentence pattern today is “Where is…” which enables you to ask about the position of any person or object. Here are some useful questions using this pattern that might be of help to you in your conversations with Bulgarians.

  • Къде живееш?
    Kade zhiveesh?
    “Where do you live?”
  • Къде е асансьорът?
    Kade e asansyorat?
    “Where is the elevator?”
  • Къде е тоалетната?
    Kade e toaletnata?
    “Where is the restroom?”
  • Къде се намира твоят роден град?
    Kade se namira tvoyat roden grad?
    “Where is your hometown located?”
  • Къде е центърът на града?
    Kade e tsentarat na grada?
    “Where is the city center?”

*TRY IT YOURSELF*

 Use the last question as a model to translate the following three sentences into Bulgarian:

Where is the cathedral?

Where is the park?

Where is the beach?

3. Practice Time: What Have You Learned?

Repetition Is the Mother of Learning!

You’ve probably written all of your answers for the *TRY IT YOURSELF* sections now. If you have, you can check the answers at the very end of this article. If not, you can translate them now.

Even if you’ve already written your answers and checked them, it’s good to repeat the exercise now, trying to get them all correct this time. 

  • This is Anton. He is a student.
  • Anton is a good student and my close friend.
  • You are awesome!  – for both sexes
  • I want to ask a question.
  • I need to learn the Bulgarian language.
  • I need to go to the toilet.
  • I need help.
  • I feel bad. I need a doctor.
  • I have to go.
  • I need a pen.
  • I love to drink orange juice.
  • May I have one kilogram of carrots, please?
  • May I have one salt packet, please?
  • May I have two yogurts, please?
  • Excuse me, can I close the door?
  • Excuse me, may I have one loaf of bread?
  • What is your mood today?
  • What was your mood yesterday?
  • What will be your mood tomorrow?
  • When is the train arriving?
  • When is their car arriving?
  • When is the motorcycle arriving?
  • Where is the cathedral?
  • Where is the park?
  • Where is the beach?

As you can see, it’s a long list, so it will be beneficial for you to try to write each sentence at least two times. The more the better! This will help you master all ten sentence patterns in Bulgarian.

4. How BulgarianPod101 Can Help You

This complete guide to the top ten Bulgarian sentence patterns from BulgarianPod101 will help you start speaking freely in your conversations with Bulgarian people. Our goal is to help you advance in this foreign language much more quickly than you can make it on your own.

However, you may find some exercises difficult to complete, or run into issues with Bulgarian grammar or other language-related topics. Do these challenges mean that you have to give up and cease studying the language? Not at all! Winners never stop until they reach their goal. 

To help you become a winner, BulgarianPod101 offers you a special feature called MyTeacher. You can find your favorite Bulgarian language expert there, who can help you conquer all the obstacles that now seem insurmountable. Your personal teacher will help you become a language winner!

We believe these sentence patterns have helped you improve your speaking skills, but we always appreciate your feedback. We look forward to hearing from you and will help you out the best we can! 

Now, it’s time to check your answers. Don’t worry if not all of them are correct. Just practice, practice, practice…

Answers to Translation Exercises

  • This is Anton. He is a student.
    Това е Антон. Той е студент.
    Tova e Anton. Toy e student.
  • Anton is a good student and my close friend.
    Антон е добър студент и мой близък приятел.
    Anton e dobar student i moy blizak priyatel.
  • You are awesome! – for both sexes
    Ти си страхотен! – for masculine
    Ti si strahoten!
    Ти си страхотна! – for feminine
    Ti si strahotna!
  • I want to ask a question.
    Искам да задам въпрос.
    Iskam da zadam vapros.
  • I need to learn the Bulgarian language.
    Трябва да науча български език.
    Tryabva da naucha balgarski ezik.
  • I need to go to the toilet.
    Трябва да отида до тоалетната.
    Tryabva da otida do toaletnata.
  • I need help.
    Трябва ми помощ.
    Tryabva mi pomosht.
  • I feel bad. I need a doctor.
    Зле ми е. Имам нужда от лекар.
    Zle mi e. Imam nuzhda ot lekar.
  • I have to go.
    Трябва да тръгвам.
    Tryabva da tragvam.
  • I need a pen.
    Трябва ми химикалка.
    Tryabva mi himikalka.
  • I love to drink orange juice.
    Обичам да пия портокалов сок.
    Obicham da piya portokalov sok.
  • May I have one kilogram of carrots, please?
    Може ли един килограм моркови, моля?
    Mozhe li edin kilogram morkovi, molya?
  • May I have one salt packet, please?
    Може ли един пакет сол, моля?
    Mozhe li edin paket sol, molya?
  • May I have two yogurts, please?
    Може ли две кисели млека, моля?
    Mozhe li dve kiseli mleka, molya?
  • Excuse me, can I close the door?
    Извинете, може ли да затворя вратата?
    Izvinete, mozhe li da zatvorya vratata?
  • Excuse me, may I have one loaf of bread?
    Извинете, може ли един хляб?
    Izvinete, mozhe li edin hlyab?
  • What is your mood today?
    Какво е настроението ти днес?
    Kakvo e nastroenieto ti dnes?
  • What was your mood yesterday?
    Какво беше настроението ти вчера?
    Kakvo beshe nastroenieto ti vchera?
  • What will be your mood tomorrow?
    Какво ще бъде настроението ти утре?
    Kakvo shte bade nastroenieto ti utre?
  • When is the train arriving?
    Кога пристига влакът?
    Koga pristiga vlakat?
  • When is their car arriving?
    Кога пристига колата им?
    Koga pristiga kolata im?
  • When is the motorcycle arriving?
    Кога пристига моторът?
    Koga pristiga motorat?
  • Where is the cathedral?
    Къде е катедралата?
    Kade e katedralata?
  • Where is the park?
    Къде е паркът?
    Kade e parkat?
  • Where is the beach?
    Къде е плажът?
    Kade e plazhat?

Let us know how you did in the comments!

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