to go out
to get up
to be late
to want; to wish
The Focus of this Lesson Is Expressions Used When Asking for Something or When Giving Orders
"Get up already!"
Asking or inviting someone to do something or giving orders can be done by using one specific form of imperative mood expressions. Let's look at the Bulgarian expressions used in such cases.
A simple way to ask someone to do something in Bulgarian is to use the imperative mood. It is formed with the second person singular (or plural, for many people) form of the verb in the imperative form. So, this form in Bulgarian usually ends in -ай for the singular and -айте for the plural. Also, note that -те is a typical ending for the plural for most of the different verb forms, so it's useful to remember it. For example, Хайде, тръгвай! which, in English, is something like "Come on, let's go!" is the singular, and Хайде, тръгвайте! is the plural, used when talking to more than one person.
Using the Imperative Form in the Plural
The plural form is the one used in formal situations, but in this case, we must note that, since the imperative form is kind of a not-very-formal expression, it would not sound very good to use it with superiors and elderly people. Still, in cases when drawing someone's attention is necessary, we can use it. For example, Внимавайте! (in English, "Be careful!") is a formal expression that can be used, not only with more than one person, but also with people with whom you are using formal language.
- Казвай кое избираш!
Kazvai koe izbirash!
"Say which one you choose!"
- Побързай, закъсняваме.
"Hurry up, we're late."
- Внимавай, чашата ще падне!
Vnimavai, chashata shte padne!
"Be careful, the glass will fall!"
"Go!" (for example when cheering someone at a sports event)
Examples from this dialogue:
- Елена: Ставай вече! Седем и половина е.
Elena: Stavai veche! Sedem i polovina e.
Elena: Get up already! It's seven thirty.
Some verbs have different endings for their imperative form. For example, the verb "to live" (живея in Bulgarian) will end in -ей for the second person singular and -ейте for the second person plural, like in the sentences Живей в името на свободата! and Живейте така, че да накарате родителите ви да се гордеят с вас. The first one means "Live in the name of freedom!" and the second one is "Live so that you make your parents proud of you."
Work and School Hours in Bulgaria
In this lesson, the two main characters were in a typical situation-a mother tries to wake her son up in the morning so that he won't be late for school. So now, let us check what the typical hours to go to school and work in Bulgaria are, when people commute to school and work, and when those facilities usually finish classes and business hours. Schools start usually at 7:30 or 8 o'clock and have classes until noon or 1 pm. There are ten-minute breaks between classes and one longer, twenty-minute break after the third class. Usual working hours are a bit different. For example, a typical clerk's business day will start at 8:30 or 9 am and will end at 5 pm. There are businesses that have longer working hours-usually IT-related ones. These numbers may vary depending on the type of school or company, but still, that makes commuting to school and work easier, since kids and grown-ups generally commute during different hours.
|Becky:Hello and welcome to BulgarianPod101.com. This is Beginner, season 1, lesson 1 - Another Five Minutes’ Sleep Makes All the Difference in Bulgaria! I’m Becky.|
|Iva: I’m Iva!|
|Becky:In this lesson, you'll learn how to give orders in Bulgarian.|
|Iva:The conversation takes place in a house.|
|Becky:It’s between Elena and Kiril, who are a mother and son. She's trying to wake him up in the morning.|
|Iva:The speakers are members of one family, so they use informal language.|
|POST CONVERSATION BANTER|
|Becky:So In this lesson, the two main characters were in a typical situation…|
|Iva:Yes, a mother tries to wake her son up in the morning so that he won’t be late for school.|
|Becky:Yeah, this definitely happened to me too!|
|Iva:So now let's talk about the typical work and school hours in Bulgaria…|
|Becky:...when people commute to school and work…|
|Iva:...and when those facilities usually finish classes and business hours respectively.|
|Becky:Ok. Schools usually start at 7.30 or 8 o’clock and have classes until noon or 1 pm.|
|Iva:There are 10-minute breaks between classes and one longer 20-minute break after the 3rd class.|
|Becky:As for work, usual working hours are a bit different. For example, a typical clerk’s business day will start at 8.30 or 9 am. And it will end at 5 pm.|
|Iva:There are some businesses that have longer working hours, usually IT-related ones.|
|Becky:These numbers may vary depending on the type of school or company, but still that makes commuting to school and work easier, since kids and grown-ups generally commute at different hours.|
|KEY VOCAB AND PHRASES|
|Becky:Let’s take a closer look at the usage of some of the words and phrases from this lesson.|
|Iva:The first one is “вече”.|
|Becky:This is an adverb meaning “already” or “yet”.|
|Iva:It usually comes at the beginning or at the end of the sentence.|
|Becky:For example, “Are you already awake?”…|
|Iva:...in Bulgarian will be Буден ли си вече?|
|Becky:OK. In a formal situation, what should we say?|
|Iva:“Вече” is used both in formal and informal situations.|
|Becky:Ah, yeah, that depends on the verb form, not on the adverb, right?|
|Becky:OK! What’s next?|
|Becky:This is an adverb meaning the opposite “yet,” or in other words “still”.|
|Iva:Yes. It can also have the meaning of “more”.|
|Becky:Can you you give us an example?|
|Iva:For example, “Give me more details, please” in Bulgarian will be “Дай ми още информация, моля те”|
|Becky:You can see that, in this case, it goes together with the noun. And what’s the third word?|
|Becky:It's an adverb meaning “again”, “once more,” and so on.|
|Iva:Since it sounds a bit informal, in more formal situations we can use another adverb…|
|Iva:“отново,” which also means “again”.|
|Becky:Okay, now onto the grammar.|
|Becky:In this lesson, you’ll learn about some expressions used when asking for something or when giving orders.|
|Iva:Asking or inviting someone to do something or giving orders can be done by using one specific form of imperative mood expressions.|
|Becky:Let's look at the expressions used in these cases.|
|Iva:Well, a simple way to ask someone to do something in Bulgarian is to use the imperative mood.|
|Becky:So it's formed using the second person singular form of the verb in the imperative tense. Or the second person plural for speaking politely to elders.|
|Iva:Yes. This form in Bulgarian usually ends in “-ай” for the singular and “-айте” for the plural.|
|Becky:Also, note that “-те” is a typical ending for the plural for most of the different verb tenses, so it’s useful to remember it.|
|Iva:That’s true. So here’s the example for the singular, “Хайде, тръгвай!”|
|Becky:...which in English is something like “Come on, let’s go!”|
|Iva:And “Хайде, тръгвайте!” is for the plural.|
|Becky:Which is used when talking to more than one person.|
|Iva:The plural form is the one used in formal situations, but in this case we must note that the imperative tense is kind of a not very formal expression...|
|Becky:You mean it wouldn't sound very good to use it with superiors and elderly people, right?|
|Iva:Yes, but in cases where drawing someone’s attention is necessary, we can use it.|
|Becky:Can you give us an example?|
|Iva:For example, “Внимавайте!”|
|Becky:in English, “Be careful!”|
|Iva:Yes. Listeners, please repeat, “Внимавайте!” (pause)|
|Becky:Obviously, this is a formal expression that can be used not only to more than one person, but also to people with whom you're using formal language.|
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|Becky:Okay, well, that’s all for now. There's much more detailed information in our lesson notes...|
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